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Regulation of Gene Expression: Operons, Epigenetics, and Transcription Factors
 
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We learned about gene expression in biochemistry, which is comprised of transcription and translation, and referred to as the "central dogma" of molecular biology. But how is this process regulated? How does a cell know which genes to express and when? Well it's pretty complicated, but let's just get our feet wet by looking at operons, epigenetics, and transcription factors! To support this channel and keep up on STEM news at the same time, click on the link below and subscribe to this FREE newsletter: http://www.jdoqocy.com/click-9021241-13591026 Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 164878 Professor Dave Explains
Histone acetylation and methylation
 
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This epigenetics lecture explains about the Histone acetylation and methylation. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are the approaches in which the lysine residues within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome are acetylated and deacetylated as part of gene law. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are most important components of gene regulation. These reactions are normally catalysed through enzymes with "histone acetyltransferase" (HAT) or "histone deacetylase" (HDAC) endeavor. Acetylation is the approach the place an acetyl sensible crew is transferred from one molecule (on this case, Acetyl-Coenzyme A) to an extra. Deacetylation is readily the reverse response the place an acetyl staff is removed from a molecule. Acetylated histones, octameric proteins that organize chromatin into nucleosomes and finally better order constructions, symbolize a sort of epigenetic marker inside chromatin. Acetylation removes the positive charge on the histones, thereby reducing the interaction of the N termini of histones with the negatively charged phosphate companies of DNA. As a consequence, the condensed chromatin is modified into a more comfortable constitution that's related to higher levels of gene transcription. This leisure can also be reversed by way of HDAC pastime. Comfortable, transcriptionally active DNA is known as euchromatin. More condensed (tightly packed) DNA is referred to as heterochromatin. Condensation will also be brought on via techniques together with deacetylation and methylation; the action of methylation is oblique and has no outcomes upon charge. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 101589 Shomu's Biology
Epigenetics
 
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Hank & his clone Circus Hank explain the power of epigenetics, which studies the factors that determine how much or whether some genes are expressed in your body. Like SciShow on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/scishow More SciShow! Solar Energy - http://youtu.be/4uPVZUTLAvA Foldit Gamers FTW - http://youtu.be/JdBcpdH_ptA
Views: 1943409 SciShow
Epigenetics basics - Garvan Institute
 
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This epigenetics sketch was created by Armando Hasudungan, in collaboration with Professor Susan Clark and Dr Kate Patterson at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research. It has been created for a broad, non-expert audience to highlight key messages about the role epigenetics plays in biological processes like development and diseases such as cancer. To find out more: https://www.garvan.org.au/research/genomics-epigenetics Our DNA contains our genetic code. There is almost 2m of DNA in each of our cells and each of our cells contains the same DNA sequence, the same genetic code. So how can cells that contain the same genetic code be so different? What makes a muscle cell different to a liver cell? The answers lie in tiny chemical tags that attach to the DNA, modifying gene structure and ultimately controlling gene activity. The chemical tags ensure that only some of the DNA code is used in each cell type, which means only some genes are switched on (expressed), while other genes are switched off. Epigenetics is the word used to describe the chemical information attached to the DNA. So while the DNA code in each cell is identical the epigenetic code is different, thus determining our cells’ unique identities.
Epigenetics Overview
 
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Brief introduction to epigenetic regulation including the the two states of chromatin: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Transcript Epigenetic regulation encompasses a number of different modifications to chromatin. These include methylation of the DNA on cytosine bases, a modification that can further be oxidized, as well as modification of the histone tails that emanate from the core of the nucleosome. The tails of core histones labeled here can be altered with distinct chemical modifications including methylation of Histone H3, acetylation of Histone H4, and phosphorylation of Histone H2B. Euchromatin is often characterized by a more open and accessible state of the DNA one in which transcription factors have access to their cognate binding sites and can therefore recruit enzymes like histone acetyl transferases that acetylate histone tails and activate genes by recruiting components of the basal transcriptional machinery, including RNA polymerase. Heterochromatin ,in contrast, is thought to be characterized by a more repressive tight bundling of nucleosomes which impedes transcription factors from gaining access to regulatory sites on the DNA. Methylation of cytosine bases and regions called CpG Islands is a hallmark of transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin. These methylated cytosines in turn recruit proteins like MeCP2 (Methyl CpG binding protein 2) and HP1 (Heterochromatin Protein 1). These proteins are thought to maintain a repressive state of chromatin by inducing histone deacetylation by HDACs as well as histone tail methylation by histone methyltransferase enzymes.
Epigenetics
 
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Paul Andersen explains the concepts of genetics. He starts with a brief discussion of the nature vs. nurture debate and shows how epigenetics blurs this distinction. He explains how differentiation of cell types results from the inactivation of certain genes. He describes the three processes of epigenetics: DNA methylation, Histone acteylation and microRNA. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: "File:DNA Methylation.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_methylation.jpg. "File:Earrr.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earrr.JPG. "File:Epigenetic Mechanisms.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 3, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Epigenetic_mechanisms.jpg. "File:Hela Cells Image 3709-PH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hela_Cells_Image_3709-PH.jpg. "File:HeLa Cells Stained with Hoechst 33258.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HeLa_cells_stained_with_Hoechst_33258.jpg. "File:MiRNA.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 3, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MiRNA.svg. GM, Cooper. English: Histone Acetylation, January 13, 2013. Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9904/. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ch6f32.jpg. kumar35885. Simple DNA for Illustrations, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. Rosa, Gilberto Santa. Beautiful Lips., March 25, 2006. originally posted to Flickr as Lips ...............DSCF6115a_picnikbw/soft. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beautiful_lips.jpg. SheLovesGhosts. Deutsch: Zentrale Heterochromie: Grüne Iris, Um Die Pupille Herum Jedoch Ein Braun-gelber Ring, March 5, 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iris_centralheterochromy.jpg.
Views: 209247 Bozeman Science
Cis Trans Gene Regulation
 
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Cis and trans gene regulation analysis relevant to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems.
Views: 20729 Genetics
How Genes are Regulated: Transcription Factors
 
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Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Stroma-Studios/290868104261105?sk=wall Each cell in our body inherits the same master copy of DNA, but different cell types use it differently. Transcription Factors help influence which genes are used in which cell. Understanding how these dynamic proteins physically interact with DNA allows us to better understand and model their binding to DNA and their regulation of gene expression. Scientific Direction by the Wasserman Lab at the University of British Columbia: http://www.cmmt.ubc.ca/research/investigators/wasserman/lab Animation and editing by Blair Lyons of Stroma Studios: http://www.stromastudios.com
Views: 325530 Blair Lyons
Gene Regulation
 
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031 - Gene Regulation Paul Andersen explains how genes are regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. He begins with a description of the lac and trp operon and how they are used by bacteria in both positive and negative response. He also explains the importance of transcription factors in eukaryotic gene expression. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Bioinformatik, English: Jawahar Swaminathan and MSD staff at the European Bioinformatics InstituteDeutsch: Jawahar Swaminathan und MSD Mitarbeiter am Europäischen Institut für BioinformatikPlattdüütsch: Jawahar Swaminathan un de Lüüd von MSD an dat Europääsche Institut för. English: Cartoon Representation of the Molecular Structure of Protein Registered with 2nvw Code., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. English: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/images/entry/2nvw600.png, displayed on http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/entry/2nvw/summary. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PDB_2nvw_EBI.jpg. DNA, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. "File:E Coli at 10000x, Original.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:E_coli_at_10000x,_original.jpg&oldid=478393073. "File:Glass of Milk on Tablecloth.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glass_of_milk_on_tablecloth.jpg. "File:Lac operon1.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lac_operon1.png. "File:Protein TBP PDB 1c9b.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Protein_TBP_PDB_1c9b.png. "File:Ribosome mRNA Translation En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_mRNA_translation_en.svg. Forluvoft. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Termination, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1252557 Bozeman Science
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
 
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Gene regulation in eukaryotes - This lecture explains about the eukaryotic gene regulation. Regulation of gene expression entails a vast variety of mechanisms which can be utilized by cells to expand or shrink the creation of particular gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene legislation. Subtle packages of gene expression are greatly found in biology, for illustration to set off developmental pathways, reply to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can also be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational change of a protein. Gene regulation is main for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes because it raises the flexibility and adaptability of an organism via permitting the cellphone to specific protein when needed. Although as early as 1951 Barbara McClintock confirmed interaction between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds), in the color formation of maize seeds, the first discovery of a gene law approach is widely regarded to be the identification in 1961 of the lac operon, learned through Jacques Monod, in which some enzymes involved in lactose metabolism are expressed by using the genome of E. Coli handiest within the presence of lactose and absence of glucose. Furthermore, in multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, main to the creation of unique cellphone forms that possess different gene expression profiles, and therefore produce one of a kind proteins/have special ultrastructures that suit them to their capabilities (although they all possess the genotype, which follows the equal genome sequence). The initiating event main to a transformation in gene expression include activation or deactivation of receptors. Additionally, there's proof that alterations in a mobile's option of catabolism results in altered gene expressions. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 177059 Shomu's Biology
DNA and chromatin regulation | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Created by Tracy Kim Kovach. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/regulation-of-transcription?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/jacob-monod-the-lac-operon?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 127705 khanacademymedicine
Gene Regulation and the Order of the Operon
 
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Explore gene expression with the Amoeba Sisters, including the fascinating Lac Operon found in bacteria! Learn how genes can be turned "on" and "off" and why this is essential for cellular function. Check out our FREE video handouts on http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts! Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 673341 Amoeba Sisters
Tumor Supressor Gene Regulation in Cancer Cells
 
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There are many mutations that can contribute to cancer. Some mutations create more active genes, and others break genes, such as the Tumor Suppressor Gene displayed here. The disruption of the Tumor Supressor Gene expression causes the cancerous cell to divide when it should not. This nucleotide mutation has been observed in a specific type of triple negative breast cancer, presenting this area for further research. Animation and Narration: Natalie Doolittle http://www.vitae-studios.com/ Scientific Direction: Wasserman Lab at the University of British Columbia http://www.cmmt.ubc.ca/research/investigators/wasserman/lab Music: https://soundcloud.com/civil-engineer
Views: 56594 Vitae Studios
DNA Methylation
 
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DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. CpG Islands : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2964vuECi-A
Views: 15310 Hussain Biology
Heinlein M (2018): Epigenetic mechanisms controlling "promiscuous" gene expression in the thymus
 
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Walter and Eliza Hall Institute PhD Completion Seminar 31 October 2018 Melanie Heinlein Molecular Genetics of Cancer division
Views: 91 WalterandElizaHall
What is epigenetics? - Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-the-choices-you-make-can-affect-your-genes-carlos-guerrero-bosagna Here’s a conundrum: Identical twins originate from the same DNA ... so how can they turn out so different — even in traits that have a significant genetic component? Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna explains that while nature versus nurture has a lot to do with it, a deeper, related answer can be found within something called epigenetics. Lesson by Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, animation by Chris Bishop.
Views: 554679 TED-Ed
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/gene-regulation-in-eukaryotes Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 145606 AK LECTURES
DNA Methylation and Cancer - Garvan Institute
 
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This epigenetics sketch was created by Armando Hasudungan, in collaboration with Professor Susan Clark and Dr Kate Patterson at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research. It has been created for a broad, non-expert audience to highlight key messages about the role epigenetics plays in biological processes like development and diseases such as cancer. Find out more: https://www.garvan.org.au/research/genomics-epigenetics In normal, healthy cells, two epigenetic processes - DNA methylation and DNA de-methylation - are maintained in a delicate balance. This balance is disrupted in cancer. Gene promoter regions that are typically unmethylated in healthy cells commonly become highly methylated in cancer and the associated gene is silenced. In comparison, the non-genic regions of DNA become de-methylated in cancer often leading to DNA instability. This disorganized DNA methylation pattern means that the cancer DNA becomes de-arranged and genes responsible for stopping cancer growth, also called tumour suppressor genes, are switched off, allowing cancers to grow unchecked.
DNA methylation
 
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This video explains the process of DNA methylation and its importance in eukaryotic transcription using DNA methylase and Histone methylase enzymes. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html PPT source- Dr. Anindita Banerjee, Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's college
Views: 85304 Shomu's Biology
X Inactivation and Epigenetics
 
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X inactivation is a vital process that occurs in all DNA-containing cells of the female body. It is also an important research model and tool for studying epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to processes that tell our cells how, and when, to read the DNA blueprint. The epigenetic regulation of DNA is critical in both normal development and disease. X inactivation is a type of gene dosage compensation. In humans, the sex chromosomes X and Y determine the sex of an individual - females have two X chromosomes (XX), males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). All of the genes on the Y chromosome are required in male development, while the genes on the X chromosome are needed for both male and female development. Because females receive two X chromosomes, they inherit two copies of many of the genes that are needed for normal function. Extra copies of genes or chromosomes can affect normal development. An example is Down's syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. In female mammals, a process called X inactivation has evolved to compensate for the extra X chromosome. In X inactivation, each cell 'switches off' one of its X chromosomes, chosen at random, to ensure the correct number of genes are expressed, and to prevent abnormal development.
Views: 160126 WEHImovies
DNA methylation
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page DNA methylation is a biochemical process involving the addition of a methyl group to the cytosine or adenine DNA nucleotides. DNA methylation stably alters the expression of genes in cells as cells divide and differentiate from embryonic stem cells into specific tissues. The resulting change is normally permanent and unidirectional, preventing one organism from reverting to a stem cell or converting into another type of tissue. DNA methylation is typically removed during zygote formation and re-established through successive cell divisions during development. However, the latest research shows that hydroxylation of methyl groups occurs rather than complete removal of methyl groups in zygote.[1][2] Some methylation modifications that regulate gene expression are heritable and cause genomic imprinting. In addition, DNA methylation suppresses the expression of endogenous retroviral genes and other harmful stretches of DNA that have been incorporated into the genome of the host over time. DNA methylation also forms the basis of chromatin structure, which enables a single cell to grow into multiple organs or perform multiple functions. DNA methylation also plays a crucial role in the development of nearly all types of cancer.[3] DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine has the specific effect of reducing gene expression and has been found in every vertebrate examined. In adult somatic cells (cells in the body, not used for reproduction), DNA methylation typically occurs in a CpG dinucleotide context; non-CpG methylation is prevalent in embryonic stem cells,[4][5][6] and has also been indicated in neural development.[7]
Views: 38359 Shomu's Biology
Gene regulation in prokaryotes
 
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This lecture explains about the Gene regulation in prokaryotes. Regulation of gene expression entails a broad range of mechanisms that are used by cells to develop or diminish the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene legislation. Subtle applications of gene expression are greatly located in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Practically any step of gene expression may also be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the put up-translational amendment of a protein. Gene law is main for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it raises the flexibility and suppleness of an organism via allowing the mobile to express protein when wanted. Despite the fact that as early as 1951 Barbara McClintock confirmed interplay between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds), within the color formation of maize seeds, the primary discovery of a gene legislation procedure is largely regarded to be the identification in 1961 of the lac operon, learned by means of Jacques Monod, where some enzymes concerned in lactose metabolism are expressed with the aid of the genome of E. Coli most effective in the presence of lactose and absence of glucose. Furthermore, in multicellular organisms, gene legislation drives the approaches of mobile differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of specific mobilephone types that possess distinct gene expression profiles, and as a consequence produce distinctive proteins/have different ultrastructures that swimsuit them to their features (though all of them possess the genotype, which follows the equal genome sequence). The initiating event leading to a change in gene expression comprise activation or deactivation of receptors. Also, there may be evidence that alterations in a cell's choice of catabolism results in altered gene expressions. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 108248 Shomu's Biology
Epigenetics
 
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00:00 Introduction 00:32 CpG methylation 02:36 Chromatin structure review 04:31 Epigenetic modifications to histones control gene expression 05:50 Histone structure and their modification 07:40 Enzymes that control epigenetic modification 09:25 Question for class
Views: 690 Joseph Ross
CpG Islands and DNA Methylation
 
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In this video we have discussed the CpG islands which are found in DNA strands.C refers to Cytosine while as G refers to Guanine and the P is Phosphate between them. Molecular Biology Lectures : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kbAQq_Pp8g&list=PL3BijB3Hruj8emTpeb_Whrgi1rDP8bLtl
Views: 12310 Hussain Biology
Gene Silencing mechanism
 
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Gene Silencing - This lecture explains about the gene silencing mechanism by antisense RNA technology. Antisense RNA and RNA interference mechanisms are used to control the expression of desired genes in cell and it can be used to degrade target RNA so that the expression of proteins can be prevented. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 53170 Shomu's Biology
How To Change Our Own Genes
 
03:03
It's called epigenetics and according to new research, it can influence everything from a human's weight to a small animal's propensity to fall in love. And as Anthony tells us, small life changes actually give us control to how these genes are expressed. Read More: Gene switches make prairie voles fall in love http://www.nature.com/news/gene-switc... "Epigenetic changes affect neurotransmitters that lead to pair-bond formation." Mom's gastric bypass surgery might benefit her offspring's DNA http://www.theverge.com/2013/6/1/4384... "When a woman undergoes weight loss surgery, her own body isn't the only one affected: children born to women after they've undergone gastric bypass procedures exhibit key genetic differences compared to siblings born prior to the surgeries." Differential methylation in glucoregulatory genes of offspring born before vs. after maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery http://www.pnas.org/content/early/201... "Obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy affect fetal programming of adult disease. Children born after maternal bariatric gastrointestinal bypass surgery (AMS) are less obese and exhibit improved cardiometabolic risk profiles carried into adulthood compared with siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS)." Stress makes you sick by changing your genes http://io9.com/5936173/stress-makes-y... "Most of us are well aware that stress dramatically heightens our susceptibility to contracting illnesses — both physical and psychological." Why Your DNA Isn't Your Destiny http://www.time.com/time/magazine/art... "At its most basic, epigenetics is the study of changes in gene activity that do not involve alterations to the genetic code but still get passed down to at least one successive generation." Nucleus accumbens dopamine differentially mediates the formation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v... "The involvement of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens in the formation and maintenance of pair bonds was assessed in a series of experiments using the monogamous prairie vole." Histone deacetylase inhibitors facilitate partner preference formation in female prairie voles http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v... "In the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), mating induces enduring pair-bonds that are initiated by partner preference formation and regulated by a variety of neurotransmitters, including oxytocin, vasopressin and dopamine." The Role of Methylation in Gene Expression http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicp... "Not all genes are active at all times. DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that cells use to control gene expression." Is Our Health Determined By Our Genes? http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-fran... "Epigenetics is the study of molecular mechanisms by which our environment controls our gene activity." Watch More: Sleep Loss Screws Your Genes http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=fAuzUt4170A So Much Junk DNA http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=uX7Okcqe8eU Love Stinks http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=GYM0KXs8-To ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Anthony Carboni on Twitter http://twitter.com/acarboni Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 Trace Dominguez on Twitter http://twitter.com/trace501 DNews on Facebook http://facebook.com/dnews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com
Views: 208825 Seeker
Eukaryotic regulation of gene expression
 
09:27
Discussing additional mechanisms that eukaryotes have to control how often genes are expressed, and how often mRNAs are translated. This includes discussing additional DNA regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers), histone packing / unpacking, and RNA interference
Views: 113347 BleierBiology
Post-transcriptional regulation | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Created by Tracy Kim Kovach. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/non-coding-rna-ncrna?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/regulation-of-transcription?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 138721 khanacademymedicine
Gene Silencing by microRNAs
 
04:54
MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and have a big impact on many biological processes. This medical 3D animation shows the biogenesis and function of microRNAs within the cell. The goal of the project was to arouse interest by presenting the topic of gene silencing in a simplified and visually appealing way. It was part of my master`s graduation project where I had the opportunity to combine my two different studies Information Design and Molecular Biology. For schools and universities: If you want to embed the video on your site, please write my website http://www.katharinapetsche.com as a credit under the video. Thank you! Companies: If you want to use this video commercially, please get in contact: [email protected] CREDITS: Concept, Design, Animation: Katharina Petsche http://www.katharinapetsche.com Narrator: Steve Crilley Music: "Mutations" by Small Collin www.smallcolin.com
Views: 281248 Katharina Petsche
Mod-07 Lec-27 Epigenetic regulation of gene expression during development
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3569 nptelhrd
DNA methylation
 
04:18
DNA methylation is about changes to the DNA that are not related to the base sequence. The process, locations and general biochemistry is fairly well understood. But DNA methylation impacts on gene regulation and that aspect is not well understood. DNA methylation inhibits transcription. So this is an "off switch". And DNA methylation encourages the combination of DNA with histones, which is certainly part of the inhibitory mechanism. supporting documentation https://app.box.com/s/1yrat8fov74cplko0qaefqqx2eft4v2h This video was an evolutionary development from a lesson plan I developed in 2001 while teaching in Suburban Denver, Colorado. My journey into the structure of DNA was all about a confirmation of this model. After literally years of confusion I determined that the model is correct. (the journey is documented through my videos.) I made it into a lesson plan under Creative Commons. I would love to see it widely distributed. https://youtu.be/1BiTYfTpTu4
Views: 71565 mrphysh
Transcription Regulation via Histone Modifications
 
04:55
Welcome! Through this video I hope to explain some mystifying concepts about nucleosomes, and how these eight-part microscopic proteins help control the wide variety of life we see today through regulation of transcription.
Views: 3254 Sarah Montalbano
Robert Tjian (Berkeley/HHMI) Part 1: Gene regulation: An introduction
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/transcription-factors/ Transcription, the conversion of DNA to RNA, is one of the most fundamental processes in cell biology. However, only about 3% of our total DNA encodes genes to be transcribed. RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA, relies on a large set of proteins known as transcription factors to recognize the coding sequences and to transcribe the correct genes, in the correct cell type, at the correct time. In Part 1 of his lecture, Tjian gives an overview of the complex and critical role that transcription factors play in regulating gene expression. How do different cells from the same organism, such as muscle cells, neurons and red blood cells, all of which have identical DNA, have such different phenotypes? Tjian addresses this question in his second lecture, where he expands on the mechanisms of gene regulation.
Views: 58551 iBiology
Genomic imprinting
 
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This tutorial about DNA methylation explains the phenomena of genomic imprinting and the role of gene insulators in gene imprinting. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html PPT source- Dr. Anindita Banerjee, Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's college
Views: 67621 Shomu's Biology
NEET / AIIMS 2018  - Molecular Basis of Inheritance Lecture - 18 (Gene Regulation & Operon)
 
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This lecture is on mechanisms of Gene Regulation. Lac Operon & related concepts explained.
GENETICS 3: GENE REGULATION: POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
 
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GENE REGULATION: POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
Views: 4656 Walter Jahn
Structural biology of gene, epigenetic and immune regulation
 
01:11:08
Structural biology of gene, epigenetic and immune regulation Air date: Wednesday, June 21, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:11:08 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The role of RNA in information transfer and catalysis highlights its dual functionalities. Much of Dr. Patel's laboratory effort in this area has focused on metabolite-sensing riboswitches and nucleolytic self-cleaving ribozymes on the one hand, and on CRISPR-Cas systems on the other. His WALS lecture will provide a few examples of the principles underlying metabolite recognition by riboswitches; his lab's studies on catalytic mechanisms adopted by nucleolytic ribozymes; recent x-ray and cryoEM studies on ternary complexes of Cas nucleases and multisubunit cascades with bound crRNA and target DNA; and the impact of anti-CRISPR proteins in suppressing the CRISPR-Cas host-defense pathway. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Dinshaw J. Patel, Ph.D., Member and Laboratory Head, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23370
Views: 2041 nihvcast
Gene expression analysis
 
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This molecular genetics lecture explains about gene expression analysis techniques using DNA chip technology and microarrays. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Question source - www.indiabix.com
Views: 91502 Shomu's Biology
Peter Jones, Nandor Than-Epigenetics in human health and disease
 
01:15:08
Watch on LabRoots at http://www.labroots.com/webinar/epigenetics-human-health-disease Epigenetics defines the set of distinct and heritable molecular mechanisms able to influence gene expression without altering the primary genetic sequence. Common epigenetic factors include DNA modifications (methylation or hydroxymethylation), chromatin modifications (histone methylation or acetylation), and non-coding RNA expression (micro RNA or long non-coding RNA transcripts). The past decade has seen a marked increase in the number of scientific publications focusing on epigenetics research. As a result, the basic understanding as to how epigenetic pathways interact with diverse and consistently changing cellular environments to help regulate gene expression has grown as well. When normal epigenetic pathway function is disrupted, disease may result. This webinar highlights two specific areas of biomedical research in which the dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms play prominent roles in disease etiology. The first presenter, Dr. Peter Jones, will discuss the complex role that epigenetics dysfunction plays in cancer progression and how recent findings suggest novel avenues to exploit for therapeutic development. The second presenter, Dr. Than, explains how the developing placenta can be influenced by the surrounding maternal environment and identifies altered DNA methylation patterns at specific gene loci associated with prenatal health indications. The potential role for disease diagnostics will also be discussed.
Views: 597 LabRoots
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
04:40
Created by Tracy Kim Kovach. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/oncogenes?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/gene-control/v/post-translational-regulation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 75536 khanacademymedicine
Inflammation: The Role of Epigenetics and Gene Expression
 
56:41
myDNAhealth's Dr Shania Lee looks at types and mechanisms of inflammation. She will also look at the genes that can make people vulnerable to inflammation and, more interestingly, at epigenetic factors that can affect gene expression - turn these genes on or off. Finally, Dr Shania will also cover what you, as a practitioner, can do to control inflammatory responses. The webinar has been BANT and NNA accredited for CPD.
Views: 432 myDNAhealth
Richard Lee - Refinement of epigenetic approaches in neuroscience
 
01:17:56
Watch this webinar on LabRoots at: https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/neuroscience-2017/agenda Epigenetics refers to the study of nuclear architecture and gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms govern many physiological processes such as cell differentiation, x-inactivation, and genomic imprinting, and pathophysiological processes such as loss of imprinting. Epigenetic mechanisms are especially relevant in psychiatry and neuroscience, as exposure to stress, trauma, or toxicants are thought to alter brain function through epigenetic mechanisms. However, there are substantial challenges to studying epigenetics in the brain, as the brain is a highly heterogeneous organ whose constituent cells and circuits perform diverse functions such as storage of memory, behavioral and emotional response, and regulation of homeostasis among many others. In this presentation, Dr. Lee will first provide a brief overview of epigenetics and several commonly used approaches to study epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation. In particular, he will focus on the implementation of an unbiased, genome-wide platform called Methyl-Seq to study DNA methylation, which is one of the more commonly studied epigenetic modifications, to identify targets of stress and glucocorticoid exposure in the brain. Dr. Lee will then discuss some of the challenges associated with implementing epigenetic tools to answer questions in psychiatry and neuroscience, such as limiting starting material, cellular heterogeneity, and neuronal subtypes. Dr. Lee will also focus on enrichment methods using genetic labeling and flow cytometry to isolate relatively homogenous populations of cells for downstream epigenetic applications. Epigenetic tools, when combined with concepts and powerful analytical tools in neuroscience, have the potential to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of neuronal function.
Views: 140 LabRoots
Operons and gene regulation in bacteria
 
10:10
Looking at how regulatory DNA sequences can repress or promote gene transcription (particularly in bacteria operons).
Views: 178150 Khan Academy
Epigenetics: Methylation, Acetylation, and ncRNA
 
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Entry for the Breakthrough Junior Challenge 2016 For the full, more slow version, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahoqNaKfmfo&t=199s
Views: 8274 Tryphena Sithu
gene regulation
 
08:13
review of gener regulation mechanisms
Views: 78 mrcallr
ASHG 2010 Mtg.: "DNA Methylation and Evolution of Gene Regulation in Primates" (Athma Pai)
 
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TO VIEW THE FULL WEBCAST OF THIS SESSION, GO TO: http://www.ashg.org/2010meeting/video/vlogin.shtml ASHG 2010 Annual Meeting Plenary Session: "DNA Methylation and the Evolution of Gene Regulation in Primates" Speaker: Athma A. Pai, University of Chicago November 3, 2010 (Washington, DC) DESCRIPTION: Modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. While methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within species (for example, across different tissues), the extent to which these signatures are conserved across species has not been well characterized. To this end, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in six livers, six hearts, and six kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data are also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for over 7000 genes, we were able to study the evolution of gene regulation in the context of conservation or changes in DNA methylation patterns across tissues and species. Overall, we found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are largely conserved between humans and chimpanzees, and we confirmed that hyper-methylation is correlated with decreased gene expression levels regardless of tissues or species. We identified a large number of genes that show differences in expression levels between tissues or across species, which can be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation patterns. In particular, we observed differences in spatial expression patterns between humans and chimpanzee, which are likely to be explained by differences in tissue-specific methylation patterns across the species. By focusing on hemi-methylated genes, we were also able to identify genes that may be imprinted in only one of the species, as well as genes that likely escape X inactivation only in human or chimpanzee females. Finally, by considering genome-wide patterns, we estimated that inter-species differences in methylation patterns might underlie 5-8% of differences in gene expression levels between human and chimpanzee.
Views: 3174 HumanGeneticsSociety
Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression with Dr Marnie Blewitt
 
02:47
The course Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression by Dr Marnie Blewitt from University of Melbourne will be offered free of charge to everyone on the Coursera platform. Sign up at http://www.coursera.org/course/epigenetics.
Views: 2615 Coursera
Epigenetics and Autism Prevention - William Walsh, PhD
 
01:03:16
There is increasing evidence that autism is an epigenetic gene-regulation disorder. Epigenetic disorders typically involve many cases of sudden onset after an environmental insult and a complex condition that may persist a lifetime. However, an advantage of epigenetic disorders is that prevention appears relatively easy to achieve. This presentation will describe a novel autism-prevention strategy based on preserving DNA integrity through special lab tests and antioxidant protocols.
Views: 5936 AutismOne Media