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Floating vs. Fixed Exchange Rates- Macroeconomics 5.4
 
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Float it or fix it? Mr. Clifford expalins the difference between floating and fixed exchange rates and how countries peg the value of their currency to another currency. Make sure to watch this video first: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DVYVfI81R8
Views: 308255 Jacob Clifford
How Exchange Rates Work
 
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● We explain topics simply. So Subscribe if you want to learn while being entertained. ✔ Please like the video and comment if you enjoyed - it helps a lot! ▶ If you want a question answered then ask in the comments and we may make a video about it! About the video: You may have traveled a lot and wondered why you get more of one currency when you exchange it for another. If so, you have witnessed exchange rates in action, but do you know how they work? Watch the video to find out what exchange rates are, how to convert between them and the different systems which determine a currencies exchange rate. Historically the gold standard system had been used, which fixed currency to a select value of gold, held in a vault. The three main systems are the floating, managed and fixed exchange rate systems. The floating system has minimal government intervention, using supply and demand to determine the exchange rate. The managed exchange rate is allowed to be within a permitted band and a fixed exchange rate is usually pegged to a currency with the interest of being competitive in the international market. The video explains this in more detail and with helpful picture to guide you through the subject.
Views: 451031 SimplyExplain
Imports, Exports, and Exchange Rates: Crash Course Economics #15
 
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What is a trade deficit? Well, it all has to do with imports and exports and, well, trade. This week Jacob and Adriene walk you through the basics of imports, exports, and exchange. So, you remember the specialization and trade thing, right? So, that leads to imports and exports. Economically, in the aggregate, this is usually a good thing. Globalization and free trade do tend to increase overall wealth. But not everybody wins. Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Eric Kitchen, Jessica Wode, Jeffrey Thompson, Steve Marshall, Moritz Schmidt, Robert Kunz, Tim Curwick, Jason A Saslow, SR Foxley, Elliot Beter, Jacob Ash, Christian, Jan Schmid, Jirat, Christy Huddleston, Daniel Baulig, Chris Peters, Anna-Ester Volozh, Ian Dundore, Caleb Weeks -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 1041573 CrashCourse
Fixed Exchange Rate
 
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This clip summarizes three issues that arise in fixed exchange rate systems for a small open economy: (1) Pro-cyclicality of monetary policy, (2) effectiveness of fiscal policy for stabilization, and (3) the possibility of a balance-of-payments crisis in the face of an expected exchange rate devaluation.
#72, Foreign exchange rate (Class 12 macroeconomics)
 
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Class 12 macroeconomics ..... Foreign exchange rate.... Foreign exchange.... Types of foreign exchange rate ..... Depreciation and appreciation of currency.... Contact for my book 7690041256 Economics on your tips video 72 Our books are now available on Amazon Economics on your tips Macroeconomics ( new edition ) https://www.amazon.in/dp/B07R561YKH/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_apa_i_3wVXCbE2Z9DZE Economics on your tips Microeconomics http://amzn.in/d/cZykZVK Official series of playlists UG courses ( bcom, bba, bca, ba, honours) – https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgC10_Xv-BGirAqOr-hU8e-N_Nz0UpgJ- Micro economics complete course – https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgC10_Xv-BGg5n3YU6oEV7_HIzBuEbbOz Macro economics complete course- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgC10_Xv-BGg2ORORpILqiDR1gyH3MkXw Statistics complete course- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgC10_Xv-BGjrAkDyeMioJ7DEexAEeVdt National income – https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgC10_Xv-BGjpE-1V4uz_0wvvbZQnSsj_ In order to promote us and help us grow Paytm on - 7690041256
Views: 434220 Economics on your tips
What Influences Exchange Rates?
 
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You may have crossed an international border recently and have had to exchange your money from your local currency to another. Or you might have purchased goods online from a shop based overseas. Or you might be trading in the foreign exchange market. Chances are, you've dealt exchange rates before. In fact, if you've done any of the above, you’re a small factor in influencing exchange rates. To read a full analysis, visit the following page: https://www.hiwayfx.com/forex-hub/what-influences-exchange-rates
Views: 30900 HiWayFX
Why Hong Kong pegs its currency to the US dollar
 
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Subscribe to our YouTube channel for free here: https://sc.mp/subscribe-youtube Since 1983, Hong Kong authorities have pegged the value of the city's currency to that of the US dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 7.8 to 1. We explain the reasoning for the peg.
The Determinants of Exchange Rates and Managed Exchange Rate Systems - HD
 
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This video lecture walks students through a few scenarios that could lead to a change in a country's exchange rate and introduces the concept of a managed exchange rate system. Japan and the US are used as an example. We'll see what happens to the value of the Yen when the Bank of Japan engages in expansionary monetary policy, as well as what happens to the dollar when foreign investors speculate on its future appreciation. We'll also see how the US government may go about intervening in the market for its own currency to assure a stable exchange rate against the Yen, and show the effect of exchange rate management on the foreign exchange market for dollars in Japan. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 47488 Jason Welker
Causes of shifts in currency supply and demand curves | AP Macroeconomics | Khan Academy
 
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Exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market, but what causes those exchange rates to change? In this video, learn about why the supply or demand for a currency might change. AP(R) Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Macroeconomics is all about how an entire nationÕs performance is determined and improved over time. Learn how factors like unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth and recession are caused and how they affect individuals and society as a whole. We hit the traditional topics from an AP Macroeconomics course, including basic economic concepts, economic indicators, and the business cycle, national income and price determination, the financial sector, the long-run consequences of stabilization policies, and international trade and finance. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy. View more lessons or practice this subject at http://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/ap-macroeconomics/ap-open-economy-international-trade-and-finance/effect-of-changes-in-policies-and-economic-conditions-on-the-foreign-exchange-market/v/causes-of-shifts-in-currency-supply-and-demand-curves-ap-macroeconomics-khan-academy?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=apmacroeconomics AP Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Welcome to Economics! In this lesson we'll define Economic and introduce some of the fundamental tools and perspectives economists use to understand the world around us! Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 10966 Khan Academy
Co-determination of exchange rate and interest rate
 
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This clip shows how interest rates -- determined in national financial markets -- and exchange rates -- determined in the foreign exchange market -- interact. When the central bank changes the interest rate, it affects the no-arbitrage condition in the foreign exchange market: Given a constant "fundamental" expected exchange rate, the current exchange rate depreciates (rises) following a decrease of the domestic interest rate. Vice versa, the current exchange rate appreciates (falls) following an increase in the domestic interest rate.
Fixed vs Floating Exchange Rates
 
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AEI scholar Derek Scissors defines and compares fixed vs. floating exchange rates as part of this Tax Foundation University lecture series on the economics of trade.
Views: 2191 TaxFoundation
Fixed Exchange Rate and Flexible Exchange Rate | International Trade & Balance of Payment Economics
 
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To watch all videos on International Trade & Balance of Payment, visit playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLU2YP04_LRDukL62h5xlImJ_RNOarY745 Fixed Exchange Rate and Flexible Exchange Rate | International Trade & Balance of Payment | Economics Videos | Mathur Sir Classes #InternationalTrade #BalanceofPayment #Economics #bcom #CA #CS #bba #MathurSirClasses If you like this video and wish to support this EDUCATION channel, please contribute via, * Paytm a/c : 9830489610 * Paypal a/c : www.paypal.me/mathursirclasses [Every contribution is helpful] Thanks & All the Best WE NEED YOUR SUPPORT TO GROW UP..SO HELP US!! Hope you guys like this one. If you do, please hit Like!!! Please Share it with your friends! Thank You! Please SUBSCRIBE for more videos. Video Recording and Editing by - Gyankaksh Educational Institute (9051378712) https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFzUEzxnRDsbWIA5rnappwQ
Views: 3361 Mathur Sir Classes
PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) Exchange Rates
 
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PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) Exchange Rates - A video that looks at PPP (purchasing power parity) with respect to exchange rates
Views: 200793 EconplusDal
Word of the Day: Currency Peg
 
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Watch more Capital Account @ http://www.youtube.com/CapitalAccount http://twitter.com/laurenlyster http://twitter.com/coveringdelta A currency peg, otherwise referred to as a fixed exchange rate, is a type of exchange system wherein a currency's value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. The most readily well-known "currency manipulator" is China, which pegs the yuan to the us dollar. Their's is a flexible peg, but a peg nonetheless, and we look at this during our word of the day, as well as the case of Argentina. These are two very different types of currency pegs. In the case of the yuan, China artificially undervalues their currency relative to the dollar, in an effort to cheapen their exports and drive growth with sales to the US and other countries. This is an export led growth model, facilitated by a cheap currency. The people's bank of china achieves this buy regularly going out into the open market and buying us dollars in return of chinese yuan. This helps to push down the value of the yuan relative to the dollar, cheapening the chinese currency, but also causing inflation domestically because china has to print all this extra money in order to soak up the USD it buys. When a country like china loosens it's peg, its currency will naturally rise. In the case of Argentina, the central bank in that country was keeping its currency artificially high relative to the USD. When Argentina headed into depression during the early 2000's it became increasingly difficult for the country to maintain the peg, because in the case of countries that are artificially increasing the value of their currency, the national central bank had to intervene in the market by selling foreign exchange reserve in return for pesos. This had its limits, since the Argentinian central bank only had so many reserves to sell. The advantage of having a strong and stable currency, as was the case in Argentina throughout the 90's is that it attracts a lot of foreign capital. However, when times get tough, a lot of that capital can leave and then you can find yourself bankrupt very quickly.
Views: 9973 RT America
Currency pegs
 
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Pressure from the US may have pushed China to unpeg its currency from the dollar this week. But how did that peg work in the first place? Paddy Hirsch explains. Subscribe to our channel! https://youtube.com/user/marketplacevideos
Views: 35889 Marketplace APM
Currency Exchange Introduction
 
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Introduction to how exchange rates can fluctuate More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=itoNb1lb5hY
Views: 572523 Khan Academy
What is the Gold Standard? - Learn Liberty
 
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Before 1974, U.S. dollars were backed by gold. This meant that the federal government could not print more money than it could redeem for gold. Learn more: http://bit.ly/1HVAtKP. While this constrained the federal government, it also provided citizens with a relatively stable purchasing power for goods and services. Today's paper currency has no intrinsic value. It is not based on the value of gold or anything else. Under a gold standard, inflation was really limited. With floating value, or fiat, currency, however, some countries have seen inflation reach extremely high levels—sometimes enough to lead to economic collapse. Gold standards have historically provided more stable currencies with lower inflation than fiat currency. Should the United States return to a gold standard? SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/1HVAtKP FOLLOW US: - Website: https://www.learnliberty.org/ - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LearnLiberty - Twitter: https://twitter.com/LearnLiberty - Google +: http://bit.ly/1hi66Zz LEARN LIBERTY Your resource for exploring the ideas of a free society. We tackle big questions about what makes a society free or prosperous and how we can improve the world we live in. Watch more at http://bit.ly/1UleLbP
Views: 301947 Learn Liberty
Exchange Rate Determination
 
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Free app! Access all videos on this channel by putting myapp.is/Economics%20Diagrams into your phone browser and follow the instructions This video looks at how exchange rates are determined through the supply and demand of a currency in the Foreign Exchange (FOREX) market
Views: 46619 Steve Lobsey
The relationship between the Current Account Balance and Exchange Rates
 
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This lesson will illustrate how trade flows should lead to appreciation and depreciation of currencies in a floating exchange rate system, and then explain how in the case of China, central bank policy aimed at buying large quantities of US government debt keeps the supply of Chinese currency high in the US and the demand for US dollars high in China. This means the dollar remains stronger than it otherwise might relative to the Chinese RMB, contributing to the persistent trade deficits the US exhibits in its trade with China. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 117346 Jason Welker
What is Exchange Rate : Explained with Animation
 
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This Video Explains the following: 1)Exchange Rates. 2)Why the value of Currency Fluctuates. 3)How the value of a currency is decided. 4)How Demand of Goods influences the Value of a Currency. For More Animated Explanations under 5 minutes, Subscribe to Science Digest. (Suggestions/Errors, please let us know. We appreciate it.)
Views: 76354 Science Digest
The Exchange Rate and the Appreciation/Depreciation of Currency
 
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Made using Explain Everything. For some reason some of the lines I drew won't show up here. Make sure you have annotations on for that reason alone. #KAtalentsearch
Views: 9036 maxridefan1234
Interest rates and the effect on exchange rates
 
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You wanted an explanation. Here it is.
Views: 3872 Michael Norman
Fixed vs. Flexible Exchange Rate Regimes and Policies
 
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Interview granted to "Nova Makedonija" 1. What is your opinion about fixed exchange rate regimes? A. Fixed exchange rate regimes are useful in crisis circumstances, when the restoration of stability and the trust of citizens, investors, and speculators is essential. Such harsh measures, usually coupled with capital controls, should be short-term and lifted immediately when the economy had picked up and expectations have settled. Maintaining a fixed-rate regime in the long-term has nefarious and dangerous consequences as the exchange rate diverges further and further from the real value of the currency, adjusted to inflation. This erodes the competitiveness of exporters, renders imports relatively cheap, distorts the price signal throughout the economy (in other words: people don't know what the real value of their currency is abroad). It also leads to speculative attacks on the currency from the outside (if the currency is convertible and traded in free foreign exchange markets) - or from the inside (in the form of a thriving black foreign exchange market.) 2. What is the connection between exchange rate policies and better economic results? A. This depends on how open the country is to the global capital markets and what percentage of its GDP is made up of international trade and various transfers from abroad (such as remittances.) As a rule, the more exposed a country is to the ups and downs of the global market, the more it should have a flexible and adaptable exchange rate policy. A country that exports and imports a lot needs to have competitive manufacturing, services (e.g., tourism), and agricultural sectors. An important part of such competitiveness is having the correct exchange rate which reflects inflation differentials, purchasing power disparities, relative advantages, and structural elements. Such constant adjustment (up AND down, for instance within a band) is excluded by a fixed rate regime. By adopting a fixed exchange rate, the country is giving up on one of its most important automatic economic stabilizers and policy tools, as Greece is discovering now to its great cost. 3. Is a fixed exchange rate good for controlling inflation? Is there a possibility to control the prices and make a correction of the value of the currency? Inflation reflects expectations of the population regarding the future level of prices. These expectations are affected by the level of stability inside the country - but also by factors outside it. In a country that is open to international trade, foreign capital flows, and foreign direct investment, external instability is far more important than internal stability. Indeed, in countries like Macedonia, Israel, and Brazil, most of the inflation comes from the outside via the soaring prices of imports such as energy products, foodstuffs, and raw materials. There is little the monetary authorities can do to affect such imported inflation. Still, it is true that a string of unannounced, arbitrary, unscripted, incomprehensible, and large devaluations will create inflation. The exchange rate policy has to be transparent, predictable, rational, and adaptable. There are dozens of countries around the world with various modesl of flexible exchange rates and, yet, with stable prices: these two are not mutually exclusive. Flexible exchange rates mean that the currency can do down (devaluation) - but also up (appreciation or revaluation.) 4. What happens to an economy if people from abroad stop sending money? Depends on: (1) What is the share of remittances in the GDP; and (2) What are the remittances used for. In most poor countries remittances constitute 10-15% of GDP and they are used by the recipients mostly for consumption. When remittances decline, consumption and GDP are adversely affected, the level of foreign exchange reserves declines, and outlays on social welfare increase. 5. Can a country defeat the trade deficit with a fixed exchange rate? The exchange rate is only one component in the overall competitiveness of the economy. Structural reforms in the public sector and various institutions; infusion of management and marketing skills; innovation; a functioning financial system; new inputs (equipment, information technology, intellectual property under license); focused and up-to- date training and re-skilling; better access to core export markets; the economic conditions in these export markets; level and relevance of the workforce's education; mentality and ethos - all these are as important as the exchange rate alone. Germany and Japan had overvalued currencies for decades and still were able to achieve prosperity and dominate international trade.
Views: 10348 vakninmusings
Fixed exchange rates
 
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In this video you will learn how fixed exchange rate systems work, their advantages and disadvantages and what is meant by devaluation and revaluation.
Views: 6968 EnhanceTuition
Supply and demand curves in foreign exchange | AP Macroeconomics | Khan Academy
 
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In this video, learn about how the model of the foreign exchange market is used to represent the determination of exchange rates. AP(R) Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Macroeconomics is all about how an entire nationÕs performance is determined and improved over time. Learn how factors like unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth and recession are caused and how they affect individuals and society as a whole. We hit the traditional topics from an AP Macroeconomics course, including basic economic concepts, economic indicators, and the business cycle, national income and price determination, the financial sector, the long-run consequences of stabilization policies, and international trade and finance. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy. View more lessons or practice this subject at http://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/ap-macroeconomics/ap-open-economy-international-trade-and-finance/the-foreign-exchange-market/v/supply-and-demand-curves-in-foreign-exchange-ap-macroeconomics-khan-academy?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=apmacroeconomics AP Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Welcome to Economics! In this lesson we'll define Economic and introduce some of the fundamental tools and perspectives economists use to understand the world around us! Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 13456 Khan Academy
China’s exchange rate policy over the past decade
 
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Ben Bernanke explains the recent changes in China’s exchange rate and economic policy and why they are positive for the country’s economy. https://www.brookings.edu/events/gaining-currency-the-rise-of-the-renminbi/ On September 23, the Global Economy and Development program at Brookings hosted the launch of “Gaining Currency: The Rise of the Renminbi,” featuring the book’s author, Brookings senior fellow Eswar Prasad. Subscribe! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=BrookingsInstitution Follow Brookings on social media! Facebook: http://www.Facebook.com/Brookings Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/BrookingsInst Instagram: http://www.Instagram.com/brookingsinst LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/com/company/the-brookings-institution
Views: 1872 Brookings Institution
Exchange Rates: A History of International Students in the U.S.
 
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Students from abroad have been coming to study at American universities since 1854. Here's a look at the history and controversies involving international exchange programs in the United States.​ Don’t miss a WSJ video, subscribe here: http://bit.ly/14Q81Xy More from the Wall Street Journal: Visit WSJ.com: http://www.wsj.com Visit the WSJ Video Center: https://wsj.com/video On Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pg/wsj/videos/ On Twitter: https://twitter.com/WSJ On Snapchat: https://on.wsj.com/2ratjSM
Views: 596 Wall Street Journal
Forced Government Default Can Only Happen On Foreign-Currency Debt Or Fixed Exchange Rates
 
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Discussion of what can force a government to default, and a few historical examples. If a government issues its own currency and makes no other promises (such as a fixed exchange rate or to peg the price of gold) then it can never be forced to default. They might do so for political reasons or because they are stupid, but they can't be forced. On the other hand, if the government makes some sort of promise to peg or borrows in a foreign currency then it can be forced to default. If it borrows in a currency that it can't issue, then it may wind up in a situation where it doesn't have any of that currency left and can't easily get any. If the government pegs an exchange rate or the price of gold, then it must have sufficient reserves of that currency/gold to be able to maintain the peg (to maintain a gold peg for instance, it must buy gold if the price drops too low, or sell gold if the price rises too high). If there are too many people trying to convert and the government is running out of reserves, it can offer bonds (and let the market determine the interest rate) to try to lock up some of its own currency so it can't be converted. If the people don't trust the ability of the government to maintain the peg, then there might be no interest rate high enough to prevent people from converting. See the whole video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leXHTTOLzO4&list=PLKvPLZsgEcXSbdqMUTc-4usIO-9f0xBlc&index=4&spfreload=5
Views: 1310 Deficit Owls
Exchange Rate System in India and its Types - Indian Economy for Prelims 2018
 
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You can join my Live classes on Economy here: https://goo.gl/urfp1H In this lesson, Ayussh explains the exchange rate system and its types. This is an important concept to understand under Indian Economy for UPSC 2018 preparation. An exchange rate regime is the way an authority manages its currency in relation to other currencies and the foreign exchange market. Between the two limits of fixed and freely floating exchange regimes, there can be several other types of regimes. In their operational objective, it is closely related to the monetary policy of the country with both depending on common factors of influence and impact. The exchange system in India has a big impact on world trade and financial flows. The volume of such transactions and the speed at which they are growing makes the exchange rate regime a central piece of Indian Economy. Download the Unacademy Learning App here: Android: https://goo.gl/02OhYI iOS: https://goo.gl/efbytP Download the Unacademy Educator App here: Android: https://goo.gl/H4LGHE iOS: https://goo.gl/1FkFHp Do Subscribe and be a part of the community for more such lessons here: https://goo.gl/gycFVs
Views: 17667 Unacademy
Using reserves to stabilize currency | Foreign exchange and trade | Macroeconomics | Khan Academy
 
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How a central bank could use foreign currency reserves to keep its own currency from devaluing Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/forex-trade-topic/currency-reserves/v/speculative-attack-on-a-currency?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=macroeconomics Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/forex-trade-topic/currency-reserves/v/accumulating-foreign-currency-reserves?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=macroeconomics Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Topics covered in a traditional college level introductory macroeconomics course About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Macroeconomics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCBytY7pnP0GAHB3C8vDeXvg Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 107781 Khan Academy
How Does China Manipulate Its Currency?
 
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» Subscribe to NowThis World: http://go.nowth.is/World_Subscribe With about $400 billion in debt and a broken economy, Greece is in trouble. But, how did Greece end up with such a high debt, and who do they owe money to? Learn More: Greece's Debt Due: What Greece Owes When http://graphics.wsj.com/greece-debt-timeline/ "Greece is negotiating with its eurozone creditors to get more aid before the indebted government runs out of cash." Explaining the Greek Debt Crisis http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/09/business/international/explaining-the-greek-debt-crisis.html "Greece, the weak link in the eurozone, is struggling to pay its debt as its people and its creditors grow more restive." Greek debts: what does it owe? When will the money run out? http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/apr/24/greek-debts-what-does-it-owe-when-will-the-money-run-out "Crunch talks between Greece and its eurozone creditors are under way, but investors are growing increasingly sceptical that the country can reach an agreement on reforms and unlock the aid it needs from international lenders to avoid a debt default." Greek debt crisis: Who has most to lose? http://money.cnn.com/2015/01/28/investing/greek-debt-who-has-most-to-lose/ "Greece and its international lenders have embarked on a battle over the country's staggering debt." Watch More: What Happens If A Country Goes Bankrupt? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PZDLG-rtGs&list=UUgRvm1yLFoaQKhmaTqXk9SA _________________________ NowThis World is dedicated to bringing you topical explainers about the world around you. Each week we’ll be exploring current stories in international news, by examining the facts, providing historical context, and outlining the key players involved. We’ll also highlight powerful countries, ideologies, influential leaders, and ongoing global conflicts that are shaping the current landscape of the international community across the globe today. More from NowThis: » Subscribe to NowThis News: http://go.nowth.is/News_Subscribe » Like NowThis World on Facebook: https://go.nowth.is/World_Facebook » Connect with Judah: Follow @judah_robinson on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeJudah » Connect with Versha: Follow @versharma on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeVersha http://www.youtube.com/nowthisworld Special thanks to Lissette Padilla for hosting TestTube! Check Lissette out on Twitter:https://twitter.com/lizzette
Views: 291810 NowThis World
Pegging the yuan | Money, banking and central banks  | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
 
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How the Chinese Central Bank could peg the Yuan to the dollar by printing Yuan and buying dollars (building up a dollar reserve). Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/money-and-banking/currency-tutorial/v/chinese-central-bank-buying-treasuries?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/money-and-banking/currency-tutorial/v/currency-effect-on-trade-review?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: This tutorial walks through how China's undervaluing of its currency impacts trade and prices (which also fuels cheap borrowing for the U.S.). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 112936 Khan Academy
China‘s new exchange rate system and its consequences
 
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14 August 2015: In China’s new, freer exchange rate system the country’s macroeconomic weaknesses will have a bigger impact on the exchange rate. We have therefore revised our USD-CNY forecast substantially upwards. Nonetheless, we still believe that the first US interest rate hike is more likely to happen in September than in December. For more information please click refer to the web site of our Chief Economist https://www.commerzbank.de/en/hauptnavigation/research/research.html
Views: 192 Commerzbank AG
today currency rate/U.S.Dollar.Saudia Riyal,.Kuwaiti Dinar.Omani Riyal.Malaysian Ringgit
 
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Welcome To Our channel . LIFE ENTERTAINMENT is a Great Indian Event Planner and Masters of different ceremonies, established years back and approved Corporate, OrganizationsAfghani 'DZD' Algerian Dinar 'ADP' Andorran Peseta 'ARS' Argentine Peso 'AMD' Armenian Dram 'AWG' Aruban Guilder 'AUD' Australian Dollar 'AZM' Azerbaijanian Manat 'BSD' Bahamian Dollar 'BHD' Bahraini Dinar 'THB' Baht 'PAB' Balboa 'BBD' Barbados Dollar 'BYB' Belarussian Ruble 'BEF' Belgian Franc 'BZD' Belize Dollar 'BMD' Bermudian Dollar 'VEB' Bolivar 'BOB' Boliviano 'BRL' Brazilian Real 'BND' Brunei Dollar 'BIF' Burundi Franc 'XOF' CFA Franc BCEAO+ 'XAF' CFA Franc BEAC# 'XPF' CFP Franc 'CAD' Canadian Dollar 'CVE' Cape Verde Escudo 'KYD' Cayman Islands Dollar 'GHC' Cedi 'CLP' Chilean Peso 'COP' Colombian Peso 'KMF' Comoro Franc 'BAM' Convertible Marks 'NIO' Cordoba Oro 'CRC' Costa Rican Colon 'CUP' Cuban Peso 'CYP' Cyprus Pound Welcome To Our channel . LIFE ENTERTAINMENT is a Great Indian Event Planner and Masters of different ceremonies, established years back and approved Corporate, Organizations today currency rate //Open Market Currency Rates || Western Union Rates Today Forex / Foreign Rates in Pakistan - International Forex rates are according to the international market and all data taken from reliable sources for the conveniences of online users. The following table of international Forex rate shows live and updated forex rates and its converted value in Pakistani rupees. Pakbiz.com is one stop place to provide all foreign currency exchange rates such as; USD $ Dollar Rates, (€ -EUR) Euro Rates, (£-GBP) British Pound Rates, (AED) UAE Dirham Rates, (Riyal – SAR) Saudi Riyal Rates in Pakistan. International forex exchange rates are the exchange of one currency for another or the conversion of one currency into another currency. On this page, the conversion value of a currency shows each currency separately. Foreign exchange also refers to the global market where currencies are traded virtually around-the-clock. The term foreign exchange is usually abbreviated as "Forex" and occasionally as “FX”. Forex Rates in Pakistan Today - Now You can find forex rates in Pakistan online 24/7 all the data showing here are taken from reliable and authentic sources for purpose of updates. Forex rates are the rates at which two currencies can be exchanged in the market. International forex exchange rates show how much of one unit of a currency can be exchanged for another currency. Currency exchange rates can be floating, in which case they change continually based on a multitude of factors. Substitute, the exchange rates of some foreign currencies are fixed, to other currencies, in which case they move in tandem with the currencies to which they are pegged. The International Forex exchange rates have significant values in current international economy. To know the value of your home / country currency in relation to different foreign currencies helps investors to analyze investments priced in foreign dollars. Find daily up to dates and fresh International Forex Exchange Rates of major currencies such as: US$ Dollar, Euro, and Pound Sterling. VERSEAS OUTLOOK FOR DOLLAR: In the firth Asian trade, the euro rose against the dollar on a glimmer of hope that Greece may avert a debt default after Athens offered new proposals to foreign creditors ahead of the emergency euro zone summit later in the day. The dollar was trading against the Indian rupee at Rs 63.51, the greenback was at 3.7230 versus the Malaysian ringgit and the US currency was at 6.209 in relation to the Chinese yuan. Inter bank buy/sell rates for the taka against the dollar on Monday: 77.80-77.80 (previous 77.80-77.80). Call Money Rates: 05.25-6.75 percent (Previous 05.25-06.75 percent). In the second Asian trade, the euro fell on Tuesday as traders looked beyond an endless stream of headlines indicating progress in Greek debt talks while the dollar gained traction from solid US housing data. The dollar was trading against the Indian rupee at Rs 63.62, the greenback was at 3.7460 in terms of the Malaysian ringgit and the US currency was available at 6.208 against the Chinese yuan. Inter bank buy/sell rates for the taka against the dollar on Tuesday: 77.80-77.80 (previous 77.80-77.80). Call Money Rates: 05.25-6.75 percent (Previous 05.25-06.75 percent currency rates,euro rate in pakistan,euro rate today in pakistan,euro rates in pakistan,farren cranci rates today,pound rate in pakistan today,saudi riyal rates in pakistan,today currency rate in pakistan,uae dirham rates in pakistan,pakistan currency value,exchange rates,exchange rate,fixed exchange rate system,dollar,why dollar became world currency,why dollar is world reserve currency,rial rate,dollar rate,dollar rate today Please subscribe my channel and Enjoy. Link my channel : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC64l...
Views: 12989 life entertainment
Exchange Rate Practice Part 1
 
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This video lecture walks students through a few scenarios that could lead to a change in a country's exchange rate and introduces the concept of a managed exchange rate system. Japan and the US are used as an example. We'll see what happens to the value of the Yen when the Bank of Japan engages in expansionary monetary policy, as well as what happens to the dollar when foreign investors speculate on its future appreciation. We'll also see how the US government may go about intervening in the market for its own currency to assure a stable exchange rate against the Yen, and show the effect of exchange rate management on the foreign exchange market for dollars in Japan. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 22016 Jason Welker
Currency Appreciation & Depreciation - How it Affects the Economy | Economics
 
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In this video we will learn what is Rupee appreciation and depreciation. It is also referred to as currency devaluation and revaluation. You must have read it in the newspaper that rupee has become stronger or weaker or crashed or gained some points against the American dollar. All of this simply means that the value of rupee has either increased or decreased against the American Dollar. This topic is part of Macroeconomics. Currency Appreciation & Depreciation has a huge affect on a nation's economy. It drives Foreign Direct Investment FDI, increases foreign reserves and it also affects a country's import and export. Fill this feedback form for a better learning experience https://goo.gl/vrYPBw Click here if you want to subscribe https://www.youtube.com/user/TheRealSengupta Maps and sketches can be found on the instagram account search for "geographysimple"
Views: 32320 Amit Sengupta
Managed Exchange Rate Systems Part 1
 
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To avoid the volatility and uncertainty that often accompany a floating exchange rate, some governments and central banks choose to manage or peg their currency's value against another currency. This lesson explains the tools by which an exchange rate can be managed and maintained within a range of values, using the Swiss National Bank's decision to peg the Swiss franc against the euro in 2011 as an example. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 13666 Jason Welker
Introduction to currency exchange and trade | AP Macroeconomics | Khan Academy
 
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Learn how interest rates, exchange rates, and international trade are intertwined in this video. AP(R) Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Macroeconomics is all about how an entire nationÕs performance is determined and improved over time. Learn how factors like unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth and recession are caused and how they affect individuals and society as a whole. We hit the traditional topics from an AP Macroeconomics course, including basic economic concepts, economic indicators, and the business cycle, national income and price determination, the financial sector, the long-run consequences of stabilization policies, and international trade and finance. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy. View more lessons or practice this subject at http://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/ap-macroeconomics/ap-open-economy-international-trade-and-finance/real-interest-rates-and-international-capital-flows/v/introduction-to-currency-exchange-and-trade-ap-macroeconomics-khan-academy?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=apmacroeconomics AP Macroeconomics on Khan Academy: Welcome to Economics! In this lesson we'll define Economic and introduce some of the fundamental tools and perspectives economists use to understand the world around us! Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 12366 Khan Academy
L3/P2: Rupee Devaluation & Exchange rate regimes
 
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Language: Hindi, Topics Covered: - if $1=50 or $1=60: who decides this exchange rate and how? - Fixed exchange rate regime: mechanism and limitations. - Floating exchange rate regime: mechanism limitations. - Difference between devaluation and depreciation of Rupee - Difference between revaluation and appreciation of rupee? - Historic trend of Indian rupee’s fall/weakening against US dollar - How does devaluation of the currency boost its exports? - Difference between NEER and REER? How does it help determining whether currency is undervalued or overvalued? - “Managed” floating extended rate regime. Powerpoint available at http://Mrunal.org/download Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Bank, RBI, IBPS, SSC and other competitive exams, IIM, XLRI, MBA interviews and GDPI Venue: Sardar Patel Institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Satellite, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,India
Views: 272821 Mrunal Patel
The Gold Standard: How Does it Work? Do We Need It?
 
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The Gold Standard: How Does it Work? Do We Need It? 🌟SPECIAL OFFERS: ► Free 30 day Audible Trial & Get 2 Free Audiobooks: https://amzn.to/2Iu08SE ...OR: 🌟 try Audiobooks.com 🎧for FREE! : http://affiliates.audiobooks.com/tracking/scripts/click.php?a_aid=5b8c26085f4b8 The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. There are distinct kinds of gold standard. First, the gold specie standard is a system in which the monetary unit is associated with circulating gold coins, or with the unit of value defined in terms of one particular circulating gold coin in conjunction with subsidiary coinage made from a less valuable metal. Similarly, the gold exchange standard typically does not involve the circulation of gold coins, instead using notes or coins made of silver or other metals, but where the authorities guarantee a fixed exchange rate with another country that is on the gold standard. This creates a de facto gold standard, in that the value of the silver coins has a fixed external value in terms of gold that is independent of the inherent silver value. Finally, the gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but in which the authorities have agreed to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency. No country currently uses the gold standard as the basis of its monetary system, although several hold substantial gold reserves. (from Wikipedia) There are strong arguments for and against the gold standard. Others say that neither the Federal Reserve OR the gold standard should exist, and that instead, the U.S. Treasury itself should control the currency supply by issuing a Greenback currency (rather than the PRIVATE Federal Reserve Bank). This position's case has been well made in the documentary film "The Secret of Oz" by Bill Still. Watch "The Secret of Oz" for free on Bill Still's channel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swkq2E8mswI&feature=plcp SUBSCRIBE to Bright Enlightenment: http://www.youtube.com/BrightEnlightenment Join the club: http://www.facebook.com/BrightEnlightenment What do you think? Federal Reserve? Gold Standard? U.S. Treasury Greenbacks? Leave a comments, thoughts, and opinions in the comments!
Views: 116550 Bright Enlightenment
TPP and Exchange Rates
 
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The Trans-Pacific Partnership, or TPP, is an ambitious trade deal involving the United States and 11 other countries. Some argue that the TPP is unfair to US firms because it lacks an enforceable commitment by members not to manipulate the value of their currencies. But this argument ignores the progress made by the TPP toward ensuring that countries with a record of currency manipulation do not revive the practice in the future. In fact, the TPP is the first ever trade agreement linked explicitly to macroeconomic policies and exchange rates. This video highlights key features of the TPP’s joint declaration on currency and the new Trade Facilitation and Enforcement Act, which together should strengthen the US Treasury’s tools to deal with the problem.
All currency EXCHANGE rates
 
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Currency rates
Exchange Rate Class XII Economics by S K Agarwala
 
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For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert. To buy books visit www.goyal-books.com To view FREE Video Lectures visit www.goyalsOnline.com/commerce About the Book » Written strictly according to the latest syllabus prescribed by the CB.S.E., New Delhi. » Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data. » Elaborate explanation of the concepts. » Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter. » Numerical Problems from previous years' question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters. » Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary. » Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary. » Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter. » Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book. » Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books. » Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert. Benefits of Video Lectures » Easy to access anytime: With video lectures, students can learn anywhere from their mobile devices: desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones. » Students learn when they are primed to learn. » Students can pause, rewind and replay the lecture. » Eases the distraction of having to transcribe the lectures. » Self-paced learning: Students can follow along with the lecture at their own pace, going more slowly or quickly » Bookmarking: Students can bookmark the point where they're up to in the video so they can easily return and continue watching the lecture at a later point. » Searchability: Students can easily search through the lecture to find the required sub-topic they need, without having to rewind and fast forward throughout the video. » Greater accuracy: Students will understand the lecture better and can make sure that they have not misheard anything. » Facilitates thinking and problem solving: It improves research skills, collaborative working, problem solving, technology and organisational skills.
Foreign Exchange (FOREX)- Macro 5.2
 
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Mr. Clifford explains the market for foreign exchange and national currencies. If you want more practice watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DVYVfI81R8
Views: 482052 Jacob Clifford
Exchange Rates - Five Key Definitions
 
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​Here are five definitions and brief explanations of terms linked to the topic of exchange rates.
Views: 450 tutor2u
How Bretton-Woods Fell Apart
 
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Professor Perry Mehrling discussing the structure and fall of the Bretton-Woods international monetary system. In this system, the dollar was pegged to gold at $35 per ounce, then all other national currencies were pegged to the dollar at fixed exchanges rates. Then SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) could also be used to settle international payments. This system was put into place in 1946 until it fell apart in 1971. The reason it fell apart was because the supply of international dollars was growing faster than the supply of gold. This happened because of US trade deficits, but also because they lent dollars into existence to foreign nations to finance development. But as the supply of dollars started to get much larger than the stock of gold that the US held, it started to put pressure on the dollar exchange rate with gold. We could have revalued gold, but we didn't until it was too late. When countries started demanding payments in gold instead of dollars, Nixon chose to end convertibility into gold. This ended the Bretton-Woods system, and began the era of floating exchange rates, which we still are in today. This was a monumental moment for the world, because on a floating exchange rate, a government is capable of pursuing full employment through a Job Guarantee policy (more on that here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KSw0ROvM6QM&t=344s&index=1&list=PLZJAgo9FgHWZHiVWJyW2KzOWsIresj_N2). Watch the whole lecture here: https://www.coursera.org/learn/money-banking/lecture/iMZY8/the-dollar-system Take the whole course here: https://www.coursera.org/learn/money-banking/home/welcome Follow Deficit Owls on Facebook and Twitter: https://www.facebook.com/DeficitOwls/ https://twitter.com/DeficitOwls
Views: 22932 Deficit Owls
dollar euro exchange rate
 
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dollar euro exchange rate Watch my video dollar euro exchange rate and learn how to convert American Dollar currency (USD) and European Euro (EIR) currency. I use xe.com an online currency converter and calculator. The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. Lithuania adopted the euro as its official currency in place of the lithuanian litas on 1 January 2015. The currency is also officially used by the institutions of the European Union and four other European countries, as well as unilaterally by two others, and is consequently used daily by some 334 million Europeans as of 2013. Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Dollar (often represented by the peso and dollar sign $) is the name of several currencies, including those of Australia, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong, Namibia, New Zealand, Singapore, Suriname, Taiwan, the United States, and previously Zimbabwe. The U.S. dollar is the official currency of East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, the Caribbean Netherlands, and for banknotes, Panama. Generally, one dollar is divided into one hundred cents. dollar euro exchange rate Contact: Christos Pittis website: www.christospittis.com https://www.udemy.com/u/christospittis/ twitter: https://twitter.com/CPITTIS facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/christoscpittis email: [email protected] https://www.udemy.com/u/christospittis/ YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UClqulZeiMIfgPv_LirylA0g/videos
Views: 21338 Entrepreneurship pdf