Revision notes and practice question for gas exchange: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/gas-exchange-11804216 Follow me on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sciencesauce_online/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/science_sauce Facebook: https://facebook.com/sciencesauceonline/ The alveoli ("many alveoli", "one alveolus") are the sites of gas exchange in the lungs. They are tiny air sacks sometimes described as being cauliflower-shaped. Oxygen diffuses across the lining of the alveoli and blood capillaries into and into red blood cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. A concentration gradient is maintained by breathing as well as blood flow. The main adaptation of the gas exchange surface are: 1. Large surface area 2. Thin wall 3. Moist lining 4. Good blood supply 5. Good ventilation
Views: 242690 Science Sauce
Gas Exchange Physiology Animation ✔✔✔FOR MORE MEDICAL VIDEOS VISIT: http://freemedicalvideos.com/ Website: http://www.medical-institution.com/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/Medicalinstit... Twitter: https://twitter.com/USMLE_HighYield This information is intended for educational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as medical advice. Please consult your physician for advice about changes that may affect your health. This Animation video teaches you the basic concept of Gas Exchange Physiology in the respiratory system. What is gas exchange How does gas exchange work Why is gas exchange important Oxygen exchange Respiratory system
Views: 604322 Medical Institution
Why do our bodies need to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the air, and how do they do it? This video is part of our Body Systems unit. You can find out more about Stile at https://stileeducation.com/ or check out the unit here: https://stileapp.com/au/library/publishers/cosmos-magazine/compilations/cosmos-lessons/5791d5d0-d006-4efb-8974-9294b6b56048
Views: 47159 Stile Education
Find my revision workbooks here: https://www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooks/shop/ In this video, we look at how gases are exchanged in the lungs. We start by looking at the overall structure of the lungs and then explore how the alveoli are adapted for maximum diffusion of gases in and out of the bloodstream. Deliberate Thought by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/?keywords=deliberate+thought Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Image credits: All images were created by and are the property of Autonomy Education Ltd.
Views: 133916 Freesciencelessons
Lung anatomy and physiology of gas exchange in the lung alveoli during respiration nursing lecture. This lecture details the anatomy of the lungs and how gas exchange in the lungs takes place between carbon dioxide and oxygen. The lung is made up of many components that participant in gas exchange. Inhaled air with oxygen enters into the upper respiratory system via the nose or mouth then through the nasal cavities, larynx, and trachea which splits at the carina into the right and left bronchus (primary bronchi). The primary bronchi and pulmonary vein and artery enter into the lungs at the hilum. The pulmonary artery delivers unoxygenated blood to the lungs, and the pulmonary vein delivers oxygenated blood back to the heart. The primary bronchi branches off into the lobar bronchi (also called secondary bronchi) then into the segmental bronchi (also called tetiary bronchi), and then into even smaller areas such as the bronchioles. The bronchioles connect to the alveolar sacs via the alveolar ducts. Gas exchange occurs in the alveolar sac within the alveoli. The alveoli sacs contain capillaries that help with transporting carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out of the body. The pulmonary artery brings unoxygenated blood through the capillary and carbon dioxide transports across the thin capillary wall and is transported out of the body through exhalation. Then the inhaled oxygen transports across the capillary wall onto the red blood cells which is taken via the pulmonary vein back to the heart to replenish the body with fresh oxygenated blood. Other facts about lung anatomy: the right lung has three lobes while the left lung has two lobes. The lung is made up of two layers: visceral pleura (surrounds the lungs) and parietal pleura (attaches to the thoracic cavity). In between these layers, is a small space of fluid that allows the lungs to glide on each other during inhalation and exhalation. Lung A & P quiz: https://www.registerednursern.com/lung-anatomy-and-physiology-quiz/ Notes: https://www.registerednursern.com/lung-anatomy-and-physiology-review-notes/ Respiratory Nursing Lectures: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXxyukzyHpqYrJntLbv0aGE Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=registerednursern Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-ultimate-list-of-nursing-medical-supplies-and-items-a-new-nurse-student-nurse-needs-to-buy/ Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nursing-career-help/ Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/RegisteredNurseRN/videos Popular Playlists: NCLEX Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWtwCDmLHyX2UeHofCIcgo0 Fluid & Electrolytes: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWJSZ9pL8L3Q1dzdlxUzeKv Nursing Skills: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUhd_qQYEbp0Eab3uUKhgKb Nursing School Study Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWBO40qeDmmaMwMHJEWc9Ms Nursing School Tips & Questions" https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVQok-t1X5ZMGgQr3IMBY9M Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUkW_DpJekN_Y0lFkVNFyVF Types of Nursing Specialties: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfW8dRD72gUFa5W7XdfoxArp Healthcare Salary Information: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVN0vmEP59Tx2bIaB_3Qhdh New Nurse Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVTqH6LIoAD2zROuzX9GXZy Nursing Career Help: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVXjptWyvj2sx1k1587B_pj EKG Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU-A9UTclI0tOYrNJ1N5SNt Personality Types: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU0qHnOjj2jf4Hw8aJaxbtm Dosage & Calculations for Nurses: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUYdl0TZQ0Tc2-hLlXlHNXq Diabetes Health Managment: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXtEx17D7zC1efmWIX-iIs9
Views: 130321 RegisteredNurseRN
Check out the following links below! Over 1000+ Medical Questions: http://www.5minuteschool.com DONATE + SUPPORT US: http://paypal.me/5minuteschool Patreon: https://goo.gl/w841fz Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/5MinuteSchool Follow us on Instagram: http://instagram.com/5minuteschool My personal Instagram: http://instagram.com/shaz.s11 Contact us: [email protected]
Views: 65747 5MinuteSchool
Subscribe to the Operation Ouch official channel! Click here: https://www.youtube.com/c/operationouch Watch this video with your kids as we learn about how we breath! You can buy the book here https://www.amazon.co.uk/Operation-Ouch-HuManual-Ben-Elcomb-ebook/dp/B073WPMPX1/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1507123643&sr=1-1-fkmr0&keywords=operation+ouch+humanueland download the series here https://itunes.apple.com/gb/tv-season/operation-ouch-season-6/id1369101462 Operation Ouch is packed with incredible facts about the human body and fronted by identical twins Dr.Chris and Dr. Xand van Tulleken who experiment and explore their way through the fascinating world of medicine and biology. This series will de-mistify hospitals for younger viewers; no longer will the hospital be a "scary" place to go as we learn all the exciting things that go on there. Chris and Xand will let the viewer into their exclusive world of medicine and explain the awesome things our bodies can do! #OperationOuch #ScienceForKids
Views: 109352 Operation Ouch
U can like my Facebook page ie. Vipin Sharma Biology Blogs for more information regarding every national level competitive exam in which biology is a part . Like this video share it with your frnds n subscribe to my channel if u r new. Thanq so much for supporting me guys 👍 😊. https://unacademy.com/user/vks199711-4457 Open this link and click on "follow" button as well as "login" to support me on Unacademy. Do share with all your friends. https://mbasic.facebook.com/Vipin-Sharma-Biology-Blogs-588472744670315/?__xt__=11.%7B%22event%22%3A%22visit_page_tab%22%2C%22user_id%22%3A100003119064758%2C%22page_id%22%3A588472744670315%7D
Views: 38001 Vipin Sharma Biology Tutorials
So we all know that breathing is pretty important, right? Today we're going to talk about how it works, starting with the nameless evolutionary ancestor that we inherited this from, and continuing to the mechanics of both simple diffusion and bulk flow, as well as the physiology of breathing, and finishing with the anatomy of both the conducting zone and the respiratory zone of your respiratory system. Table of Contents The Mechanics of Both Simple Diffusion and Bulk Flow 2:44 The Physiology of Breathing 4:07 Anatomy of the Conducting Zone 5:47 Anatomy of Respiratory Zone 7:07 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Jan Schmid, Simun Niclasen, Robert Kunz, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Eric Kitchen, Christian, Beatrice Jin, Anna-Ester Volozh, Eric Knight, Elliot Beter, Jeffrey Thompson, Ian Dundore, Stephen Lawless, Today I Found Out, James Craver, Jessica Wode, Sandra Aft, Jacob Ash, SR Foxley, Christy Huddleston, Steve Marshall, Chris Peters -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 2470364 CrashCourse
Breathing In (Inhalation) When you breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts (tightens) and moves downward. This increases the space in your chest cavity, into which your lungs expand. The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity. They contract to pull your rib cage both upward and outward when you inhale. As your lungs expand, air is sucked in through your nose or mouth. The air travels down your windpipe and into your lungs. After passing through your bronchial tubes, the air finally reaches and enters the alveoli (air sacs). Through the very thin walls of the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes to the surrounding capillaries (blood vessels). A red blood cell protein called hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) helps move oxygen from the air sacs to the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the air sacs. The gas has traveled in the bloodstream from the right side of the heart through the pulmonary artery. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs is carried through a network of capillaries to the pulmonary vein. This vein delivers the oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart pumps the blood to the rest of the body. There, the oxygen in the blood moves from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Breathing Out (Exhalation) When you breathe out, or exhale, your diaphragm relaxes and moves upward into the chest cavity. The intercostal muscles between the ribs also relax to reduce the space in the chest cavity. As the space in the chest cavity gets smaller, air rich in carbon dioxide is forced out of your lungs and windpipe, and then out of your nose or mouth. Breathing out requires no effort from your body unless you have a lung disease or are doing physical activity. When you're physically active, your abdominal muscles contract and push your diaphragm against your lungs even more than usual. This rapidly pushes air out of your lungs. How the Lungs and Respiratory System Work You usually don't even notice it, but twelve to twenty times per minute, day after day, you breathe -- thanks to your body's respiratory system. Your lungs expand and contract, supplying life-sustaining oxygen to your body and removing from it, a waste product called carbon dioxide. The Act of Breathing Breathing starts at the nose and mouth. You inhale air into your nose or mouth, and it travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, or trachea. Your trachea then divides into air passages called bronchial tubes. For your lungs to perform their best, these airways need to be open during inhalation and exhalation and free from inflammation or swelling and excess or abnormal amounts of mucus. The Lungs As the bronchial tubes pass through the lungs, they divide into smaller air passages called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. Your body has over 300 million alveoli. The alveoli are surrounded by a mesh of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Here, oxygen from the inhaled air passes through the alveoli walls and into the blood. After absorbing oxygen, the blood leaves the lungs and is carried to your heart. Your heart then pumps it through your body to provide oxygen to the cells of your tissues and organs. As the cells use the oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed into the blood. Your blood then carries the carbon dioxide back to your lungs, where it is removed from the body when you exhale. The Diaphragm's Role in Breathing Inhalation and exhalation are the processes by which the body brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The breathing process is aided by a large dome-shaped muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts downward, creating a vacuum that causes a rush of fresh air into the lungs. The opposite occurs with exhalation, where the diaphragm relaxes upwards, pushing on the lungs, allowing them to deflate. Clearing the Air The respiratory system has built-in methods to prevent harmful substances in the air from entering the lungs. Respiratory System Hairs in your nose help filter out large particles. Microscopic hairs, called cilia, are found along your air passages and move in a sweeping motion to keep the air passages clean. But if harmful substances, such as cigarette smoke, are inhaled, the cilia stop functioning properly, causing health problems like bronchitis. Mucus produced by cells in the trachea and bronchial tubes keeps air passages moist and aids in stopping dust, bacteria and viruses, allergy-causing substances, and other substances from entering the lungs. Impurities that do reach the deeper parts of the lungs can often be moved up via mucous and coughed out or swallowed. In the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide (a waste product of body processes) are exchanged in the tiny air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the bronchial tubes.
Views: 177477 Science Art
Ninja Nerds, Join us in this video where we discuss internal respiration, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tissues. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 14643 Ninja Nerd Science
You can support the work of campbellteaching, at no cost whatsoever to yourself, if you use the link below as your bookmark to access Amazon. Thank you. If in the US use this link http://goo.gl/mDMfj5 If in the UK use this link http://goo.gl/j0htQ5 A review of the structures and tissues of the respiratory system, with focus on the trachea, plural membranes and lung tissue.
Views: 137152 Dr. John Campbell
Partial pressures of gases and gas exchange process in the lungs. Factors that affect gas exchange. This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/pulmonology ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Ashley Fleming Support us on Patreon and get FREE image downloads and video early access: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Gas exchange is the major purpose of the respiratory system. Inhaled air unloads oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide in the alveoli of the lungs, while the blood picks up oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood then travels to body’s tissues, where the reverse process happens. In the lungs, the gases move across a very thin respiratory membrane which consists of alveolar squamous cells, endothelial cells of blood capillaries, and their fused basement membranes. The exchange of gases occurs due to simple diffusion, as they flow down their concentration gradient, or partial pressure gradient. Atmospheric air is a mixture of gases, each of which independently contributes to its total pressure. The pressure of each individual gas is known as partial pressure. The atmospheric pressure is the sum of all partial pressures of gases that make up its content. The direction of gas movement from one area to another is determined by the difference in its partial pressure. A gas always moves from higher to lower partial pressure. Atmospheric air is brought into the lungs through inhalation, but the lungs are not completely emptied and replaced with outside air with each cycle of breathing. In fact, only a relatively small portion of air in the alveoli is refreshed with each breath. This makes the air composition in the alveoli significantly different from that of inhaled air. The gas exchange in the lungs occurs between this alveolar air and the blood in capillaries. Because the volume of blood in pulmonary capillaries at any moment is much smaller than the total volume of air in the alveoli, the gas exchange process essentially brings partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood to the same levels as those in alveolar air. It is therefore important that the composition of alveolar air is closely monitored and adjusted to maintain the same values. The body does just that: if carbon dioxide levels increase or oxygen levels drop, the airways automatically dilate to bring them back to normal, and vice versa. Since gas exchange occurs between the air and the liquid of the blood, the movement of individual gases also depends on their solubility in water. This explains why nitrogen, despite being plentiful in atmospheric and alveolar air, does not diffuse much into the blood. Factors that affect gas exchange include: - The magnitude of partial pressure gradient: the greater the pressure difference, the more rapid the gas movement. At high altitudes, where partial pressures of all atmospheric gases are lower, the gradient for oxygen is smaller and it needs more time to diffuse into the blood. – The thickness of the respiratory membrane: the thinner the membrane, the faster the gas diffuses. Diseases that cause pulmonary edema, such as pneumonia or left-sided heart failure, increase the thickness of respiratory membrane and hinder gas exchange. - The amount of gas exchanged is directly proportional to the contact surface between the blood and the alveolar air. Diseases that affect alveolar surface, such as emphysema, reduce gas exchange efficiency and produce low blood oxygen levels.
Views: 2466 Alila Medical Media
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-do-the-lungs-do-emma-bryce When you breathe, you transport oxygen to the body’s cells to keep them working, while also clearing your system of the carbon dioxide that this work generates. How do we accomplish this crucial and complex task without even thinking about it? Emma Bryce takes us into the lungs to investigate how they help keep us alive. Lesson by Emma Bryce, animation by Andrew Zimbelman for The Foreign Correspondents' Club.
Views: 965853 TED-Ed
Watch as a molecule of oxygen makes its way from the alveoli (gas layer) through various liquid layers in order to end up in the blood. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Created by Rishi Desai. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-respiratory-system/rn-the-respiratory-system/v/the-respiratory-center?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-respiratory-system/rn-the-respiratory-system/v/fick-s-law-of-diffusion?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5cTeADCvKWgF9x_Qjz3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 371334 khanacademymedicine
In this video we talk about how oxygen is absorbed by the lungs and the mechanism behind the transfer of the gas to the different tissues in the human body. To know more about the gas exchange in the lungs and the process of respiration you can visit here - https://byjus.com/biology/respiration-gas-exchange/
Views: 7048 BYJU'S
Can a paper bag really help you when you are hyperventilating? It turns out that it can. In part 2 of our look at your respiratory system Hank explains how your blood cells exchange oxygen and CO2 to maintain homeostasis. We'll dive into partial pressure gradients, and how they, along with changes in blood temperature, acidity, and CO2 concentrations, change how hemoglobin binds to gases in your blood. (And yes, we'll explain the paper bag thing too!) Table of Contents How Blood Cells Exchange Oxygen and CO2 2:23 Partial Pressure Gradients 2:41 How Hemoglobin Binds to Gases in the Blood 4:40 The Thing With The Bag 9:04 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Jan Schmid, Simun Niclasen, Robert Kunz, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Eric Kitchen, Christian, Beatrice Jin, Anna-Ester Volozh, Eric Knight, Elliot Beter, Jeffrey Thompson, Ian Dundore, Stephen Lawless, Today I Found Out, James Craver, Jessica Wode, Sandra Aft, Jacob Ash, SR Foxley, Christy Huddleston, Steve Marshall, Chris Peters -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 1348144 CrashCourse
Hey Kids, have you ever wondered what happens after we breathe? How does the air travel inside our body? Well, Dr. Binocs is here to explain it all in today's topic, Respiratory System. The detailed video break-up is given below 00:45 – Role of Oxygen 01:57 – Function of Lungs 03:08 – Trivia time Voice Over Artist - Joseph D'Souza Script Writer & Director - Sreejoni Nag Visual Artist - Pranav Korla Illustrators - Aashka Shah, Pranav Korla Animators - Tushar Ishi, Chandrashekhar Aher VFX Artist - Kushal Bhujbal Background Score - Jay Rajesh Arya Sound Engineer - Mayur Bakshi Creative Head - Sreejoni Nag Producer: Rajjat A. Barjatya Copyrights and Publishing: Rajshri Entertainment Private Limited All rights reserved. Share on Facebook - https://goo.gl/Jp0MCS Tweet about this - https://goo.gl/NcxLZ3 SUBSCRIBE to Peekaboo Kidz:http://bit.ly/SubscribeTo-Peekabookidz Catch Dr.Binocs At - https://goo.gl/SXhLmc To Watch More Popular Nursery Rhymes Go To - https://goo.gl/CV0Xoo To Watch Alphabet Rhymes Go To - https://goo.gl/qmIRLv To Watch Compilations Go To - https://goo.gl/nW3kw9 Catch More Lyricals At - https://goo.gl/A7kEmO Like our Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/peekabootv
Views: 1281650 Peekaboo Kidz
In this video I discuss the basics of the Respiratory System, including how the respiratory system works, I go through the breathing process, and show how breathing works. Transcript We are going to look at the functions of the respiratory system, its components, how the system works, and some things you can do to maintain a healthy respiratory system. The respiratory system’s main functions include, transporting air into and out of the lungs, protecting the body against harmful particles that are inhaled, and it’s most important function, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. So, its basically about breathing. Now lets take a look at a diagram and we will go through The respiratory systems main components. Starting here with the nose and nasal cavity, the mouth or oral cavity, the pharynx is here and it what we consider the throat. The pharynx is considered part of the digestive system as well as the respiratory system, and it connects the respiratory openings to the larynx and esophagus. The esophagus is not part of the respiratory system, and I will get to why I put it in the diagram in a minute. Next we have the larynx, also called the voice box because the vocal cords are located here. The trachea also called the windpipe, is here, and it connects to the bronchi, which merge into smaller tubes called bronchioles. And, the bronchioles connect to tiny air sacs called alveoli. And then down here is the diaphragm. Now lets go through a very basic look at what happens during the breathing process. So, air is breathed in through the nose or mouth. When it enters through the nose, it gets spread out by these shelf-like things here called conchae. The conchae help humidify the air, and trap some inhaled particles. They also warm the air. The air next passes through the pharynx and enters the trachea. One note here. This little flap like structure is called the epiglottis and it has an important function. During breathing it is pointed upward allowing airflow into the trachea, however, during swallowing it folds down to prevent food from going into the trachea, directing the food into the esophagus. If food does enter the trachea, the gag reflex is induced to protect the respiratory system. The epiglottis here, this little thing shows you how amazing the human body is. Anyways, back to air flow. So, air continues down the trachea and enters the bronchi. From there it enters into smaller bronchioles, and finally into the alveoli, which are surrounded by a network of capillaries. And this folks is where the magic happens. Oxygen enters the alveolar sac and the gas exchange occurs. Capillaries give up their waste carbon dioxide, and pick up the oxygen. Carbon dioxide is then exhaled through the air passage the oxygen was inhaled through, and the oxygen picked up by the blood returns to the heart. During this breathing process the diaphragm is busy as well, contracting as we breath in, which allow the lungs to expand, and relaxing as we exhale. Some minor respiratory disorders include, the common cold, influenza, acute bronchitis, which is inflammation of the bronchi, and pneumonia, which is inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli. Some of the more damaging disorders include, chronic bronchitis, where the bronchi become inflamed and narrowed, mainly caused by tobacco smoke, emphysema, where the alveoli become overstretched, and lung cancer, which in almost 9 of 10 cases is caused by tobacco smoke. What can you do to maintain or improve respiratory system health? Maintian a healthy weight, excess weight compresses respiratory muscles and puts more stress on your lungs. Drink plenty of water, dehydration can cause the mucus lining your airways to thicken and become sticky, making you more susceptible to illness. Consume foods rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, such as fruits, veggies and nuts, which can help to reduce inflammation and fight oxidative damage. Limit exposure to common allergens such as dust mites, pollen and animal dander. Maintain good hygiene, many respiratory viruses are transmitted because of bad hygiene and poor hand washing. Don’t over consume alcohol, it dehydrates the body and weakens the immune system. Get more active, regular aerobic activity can help our respiratory system. Add indoor plants, plants have been shown to help improve air quality. Bottom line. As you can see the respiratory system has a major impact on overall health, as you may already know, breathing is kind of important. So, eat a healthy diet, maintain an active lifestyle, and keep up good hygiene.
Views: 389055 Whats Up Dude
Part 2 in an 8 part lecture on GAS EXCHANGE in a flipped Human Physiology course taught by Wendy Riggs. CC-BY. Watch the whole lecture (all 8 videos) by going to the PLAYLIST: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5GRRRmaGVqWBUpn0V2lszcbNp_-TIJ0E
Views: 38968 Wendy Riggs
Get the NEW BLOOD FLOW app with several step-by-step videos several flash cards, quiz questions and notes to make sure you ace your exams!!! Apple Store: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/blood-flow-through-the-heart/id887089053?mt=8 Google Play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=mobione.cardiacbloodflowpaid Get the ENDOCRINE app with videos on the go for Apple and Andoird devices!!! iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/endocrine/id711858893?mt=8&ls=1 Google Play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/developer?id=John+Roufaiel Preview Video (on YouTube): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HLadhgHjcG4&feature=youtu.be Or search for "Endocrine" or "ProfRoofs" or "John Roufaiel" in the medical category. You can find this video and other helpful videos/materials on my website: www.profroofs.com This video introduces the details of external and internal respiration. It was produced in response to a viewer's request who had an upcoming exam. In the near future I hope to add more detail. Please feel free to add suggestions. Thank you.
Views: 153672 Prof. Roofs, MD
Your respiratory system is a system in humans that is designed to extract oxygen from the air so we can use it in respiration around the body and at the same time get rid of carbon dioxide gas into the air which is the waste product from respiration. oxygen gas travels through the respiratory system, as you inhale, the molecule is drawn in through the mouth or the nose, it goes into the back of the throat where it enters a tube called the trachea. The tractor or windpipe has special rings of cartilage to keep it open at all times so you can breathe if you are lying down asleep or on a trampoline. The oxygen molecule now travels down the trachea and they will go into either the left or the right lung via a tube called the bronchus. This bronchus then splits into smaller tubes called bronchioles and finally the oxygen molecule will make its way into a tiny air sac called an alveolar, these alveoli are surrounded by tiny blood vessels called capillaries and the oxygen molecule now passes across from the air into the blood via a process of diffusion. At the same time the carbon dioxide molecule goes the other way coming out of the blood and into the alveoli as you exhale. As you exhale the carbon dioxide will take the journey back up the bronchioles a bronchus the trachea and out of the mouth. This happens to millions of molecules with each breath have about 300 million alveoli in each lung. On average, you breathe like this 12 to 16 times a minute. Unlike your digestive system the respiratory system is a dead end. If something bad gets into your lungs it's very hard to get it back out. As usual the body has an answer to look very closely at the cells lining the tracker and the bronchi some of them have tiny little hairs on called cilia and in between these cells are other cells called goblet cells that are secreting mucus. This mucus traps dirt dust and bacteria before entered the lungs. The cilia then what this mucus up into the mouth where it can be swallowed to be killed by your stomach acid. There are many things that can go wrong with your lungs such as asthma, pneumonia and diseases associated with smoking such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. However, if you have a problem a doctor may perform a bronchoscopy. This is when they put a tube with a light and the camera on it into your Airways and look for signs of inflammation or bleeding. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 21975 FuseSchool - Global Education
Gas Exchange - Delivery of Oxygen & Elimination of Carbon dioxide - Medical Animation Air first enters the body through the mouth or nose, quickly moves to the pharynx (throat), passes through the larynx (voice box), enters the trachea, which branches into a left and right bronchus within the lungs and further divides into smaller and smaller branches called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles end in tiny air sacs, called alveoli, which inflate during inhalation, and deflate during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the body with the next exhalation.
Views: 45879 Science Art
Air first enters the body through the mouth or nose, quickly moves to the pharynx (throat), passes through the larynx (voice box), enters the trachea, which branches into a left and right bronchus within the lungs and further divides into smaller and smaller branches called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles end in tiny air sacs, called alveoli, which inflate during inhalation, and deflate during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the body with the next exhalation. The primary function of the respiratory system is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and reaches the alveoli. The layers of cells lining the alveoli and the surrounding capillaries are each only one cell thick and are in very close contact with each other. This barrier between air and blood averages about 1 micron (1/10,000 of a centimeter, or 0.000039 inch) in thickness. Oxygen passes quickly through this air-blood barrier into the blood in the capillaries. Similarly, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli and is then exhaled. Oxygenated blood travels from the lungs through the pulmonary veins and into the left side of the heart, which pumps the blood to the rest of the body (see Biology of the Heart : Function of the Heart). Oxygen-deficient, carbon dioxide-rich blood returns to the right side of the heart through two large veins, the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. Then the blood is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Gas Exchange Between Alveoli and Capillaries: To support the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, about 5 to 8 liters (about 1.3 to 2.1 gallons) of air per minute are brought in and out of the lungs, and about three tenths of a liter of oxygen is transferred from the alveoli to the blood each minute, even when the person is at rest. At the same time, a similar volume of carbon dioxide moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled. During exercise, it is possible to breathe in and out more than 100 liters (about 26 gallons) of air per minute and extract 3 liters (a little less than 1 gallon) of oxygen from this air per minute. The rate at which oxygen is used by the body is one measure of the rate of energy expended by the body. Breathing in and out is accomplished by respiratory muscles. Air is brought to the alveoli in small doses (called the tidal volume), by breathing in (inhalation) and out (exhalation) through the respiratory airways, a set of relatively narrow and moderately long tubes which start at the nose or mouth and end in the alveoli of the lungs in the chest. Air moves in and out through the same set of tubes, in which the flow is in one direction during inhalation, and in the opposite direction during exhalation. During each inhalation, at rest, approximately 500 ml of fresh air flows in through the nose. Its is warmed and moistened as it flows through the nose and pharynx. By the time it reaches the trachea the inhaled air's temperature is 37 °C and it is saturated with water vapor. On arrival in the alveoli it is diluted and thoroughly mixed with the approximately 2.5–3.0 liters of air that remained in the alveoli after the last exhalation. This relatively large volume of air that is semi-permanently present in the alveoli throughout the breathing cycle is known as the functional residual capacity (FRC). At the beginning of inhalation the airways are filled with unchanged alveolar air, left over from the last exhalation. This is the dead space volume, which is usually about 150 ml. It is the first air to re-enter the alveoli during inhalation. Only after the dead space air has returned to the alveoli does the remainder of the tidal volume (500 ml - 150 ml = 350 ml) enter the alveoli. The entry of such a small volume of fresh air with each inhalation, ensures that the composition of the FRC hardly changes during the breathing cycle.
Views: 32717 AniMed
GCSE Biology Revision: Breathing In this video, we look at breathing. We explore how the diaphragm and intercostal muscles work together to ventilate the lungs. We then look at how ventilation increases the diffusion of gases in the alveoli.
Views: 59445 Freesciencelessons
Bronchioles, alveoli and gaseous exchange MCQs. Leave your answers in the comments section for marking. Which statements about the circulation of blood through the lungs is true? a. Blood in the pulmonary artery is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen. c. Blood in the pulmonary artery is low in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen d. Blood in the pulmonary vein is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen e. Blood in the pulmonary vein is high in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen Blood in a pulmonary venule will be; a. high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen b. high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide. c. high in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen d. low in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide. Most oxygen in the blood is transported as; a. Gas dissolved in the plasma b. Carboxyhaemoglobin c. Bicarbonate d. Oxyhaemoglobin. e. Deoxyhaemoglobin f. Reduced haemoglobin g. Lysosomes in white cells Asthma is characterised by inflammation at the level of the; a. trachea b. left and right main bronchus c. larger bronchi d. bronchioles. e. alveoli Pneumonia is characterised by infection at the level of the; a. trachea b. left and right main bronchus c. larger bronchi d. bronchioles e. alveoli.
Views: 1627 Dr. John Campbell
ilmkidunya.com has brought to you Lecture of Usama Qamar on "10th Class Biology Chapter 10 Gaseous Exchange. Topic 10.2.2 The Lungs". For more videos of Usama Qamar visit https://www.ilmkidunya.com/study , https://www.instutor.com This lecture is specially recorded for students of 10th class, 10th class from all Punjab Boards and is based on the current curriculum of study for Biology book. All these lectures are conducted in Urdu/English medium to facilitate Pakistani students.
Views: 18099 ilmkidunya
Aimed at Year 9 students, this video explains the movement of the gases Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide from the alveoli and cells into and out of capillaries. A large surface area to volume ration is important to achieve maximum diffusion.
Views: 23668 VolkScience
Respiration is carried out by all living things. Animals need oxygen to carry out aerobic respiration and they need to get rid of the waste product called carbon dioxide. This is called gas exchange. Swapping one gas for another. Animals have evolved different mechanisms for carrying out gaseous exchange. The most important thing is to create a large surface area, the bigger the surface area the faster diffusion of the gases can occur. Secondly they all have a good blood supply. You want to get oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out as quickly as possible so the blood travels very close to the exchange surface to once again maximise diffusion. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 43643 FuseSchool - Global Education
How Gas Exchange Occurs in the Lungs Animation | Anatomy & Physiology of Respiratory System Video
Views: 631 HEALTH INFO NETWORK
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Views: 126810 Armando Hasudungan
Download my e books, one on Physiology and one on Pathophysiology from campbellteaching.co.uk Respiration describes breathing and the utilisation of oxygen within the cells of the body. Traditionally the term external respiration has been used to describe the processes of ventilation and the transfer of oxygen from the lungs into the blood. Ventilation is the process of physically moving air in and out of the lungs. Internal respiration describes how oxygen is used within the cells of the body to oxidize food in order to generate energy. Nose and mouth Air passes in and out of the nose via two openings called the external nares or nostrils. As air passes through the nose it is warmed when it comes into contact with the lining of the internal nasal passages as they are well perfused with warm blood. The vascular nature of the nasal cavities explains why a lot of blood can be lost through a nose bleed. Warming the air prevents the lower airways being chilled. As the lining of the nasal passages are moist, air passing through the nose is also humidified. This protects the lower airways from possible drying effects of air. The mucous lining, in combination with nasal hair, has the effect of filtering air passing through the nose, removing foreign bodies such as small insects. Strangely the sense of smell provides much of the sensation of taste; this is why food seems to lose much of its taste when we have a cold. Smell also alerts us to the dangers of poisonous gases and bad food. Olfaction describes the sense of smell and there are olfactory sensory receptors found in the lining of the nasal cavity. These receptors are continuous with sensory nerve fibres which pass into the temporal lobes of the brain where smells are experienced. A septum describes a structure which divides an area into two, so the nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into left and right sides. The back part of the septum is made of bony tissue and the front part of more flexible cartilage. Posteriorly the nasal cavity communicates with the nasopharynx through two openings called the internal nares. The mouth can increase the size of the airway opening to increase the volumes of air which can be inhaled. However, young babies breathe exclusively through the nose which means if their noses are blocked for any reason they will asphyxiate. Sinuses These are small air filled cavities in some of the frontal bones of the skull. They are lined with mucus which drains into the nasal cavity via small passages. The function of the sinuses seems to be to lighten the weight of the skull and to give resonance to the voice. Infection may spread from the nose into the sinuses giving rise to the common painful condition of sinusitis. Pharynx This is the passage which connects the back of the nose and mouth with the trachea and oesophagus. It is composed of three sections; the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is behind the nasal cavity, below this is the oropharynx behind the mouth. The palatine tonsils are located in the oropharynx and can be seen through the open mouth. The lower section of the pharynx is called the laryngopharynx which leads down to the oesophagus and trachea. Larynx The larynx extends from the laryngopharynx to the start of the trachea. Because the structure is mostly composed of cartilage it can easily be felt in the middle of the neck, where it is commonly referred to as the ‘Adam’s Apple’. You can support the work of campbellteaching, at no cost whatsoever to yourself, if you use the link below as your bookmark to access Amazon. Thank you. If in the US use this link http://goo.gl/mDMfj5 If in the UK use this link http://goo.gl/j0htQ5
Views: 159853 Dr. John Campbell
Breathing and exchnage of gases video Lecture of Biology for NEET by SB Mam.SB Mam is known for herunique, focused and simplified NEET teaching to bring to students an easy and analytical methodology towards NEET. This course is designed and developed by the experienced faculty of KOTA and www.etoosindia.com. In this lecture SB Mam is giving the detailed view of respiratory tract, larynx, bronchial & respiratory tree. For more videos go to: https://goo.gl/H5FBZV
Views: 432906 Etoos Education
explanation about gas exchange in the lungs-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/join -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 44 Rudeen Sajadieh
Urry/Cain/Wasserman/Minorsky/Reece - Campbell Biology, 11/e MasteringBiology Figure Walkthroughs guide students through key figures with narrated explanations, figure markups, and questions that reinforce important points.
Views: 127224 Pearson Higher Education
Physiology of breathing (pulmonary ventilation): air pressure basics, inspiration and expiration cycle, deep breathing, resistance to airflow, lung compliance, elasticity. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/pulmonology ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Ashley Ottesen All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Pulmonary ventilation, commonly referred to as breathing, is the process of air flowing IN and OUT of the lungs during INspiration and EXpiration. The air movements are governed by the principles of gas laws. Basically: - air flows from HIGHER to LOWER pressure; - pressure within a cavity INcreases when its volume DEcreases, and vice versa; - volume of a given amount of gas INcreases with INcreased temperature. At rest, in between breaths, the pressure inside the lungs, or intrapulmonary pressure, EQUALS the pressure outside the body, or atmospheric pressure. When discussing respiratory pressures, this is generally referred to as a RELATIVE pressure of ZERO. This is because what matters is the DIFFERENCE between the two pressures, NOT their absolute values. Thus, a NEGATIVE pressure is a pressure BELOW atmospheric, while a POSITIVE pressure is ABOVE atmospheric. The lungs are covered in a double-layer membrane, which forms a THIN space surrounding the lungs, called the PLEURAL cavity. The pressure within the pleural cavity, or intrapleural pressure, is normally negative. This negative pressure acts like a SUCTION to keep the lungs inflated. If this becomes zero, such as in the case of pneumothorax, when the chest wall is punctured and the pleural cavity has the same pressure as the outside air, the lung would COLLAPSE. Pulmonary ventilation is achieved by rhythmically changing the volume of the thoracic cavity. During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract, expanding the thoracic cavity and the lungs. This INcrease in volume results in a DEcrease in pressure, causing outside air to flow IN. Another factor that helps to inflate the lungs is the warming of the inhaled air. This effect is most notable on a cool day, when the temperature outside is significantly lower, the inhaled air INcreases in volume as it warms up inside the body and inflates the lungs, FURTHER facilitating inhalation. While inspiration requires muscular contraction and hence energy expenditure, expiration during quiet breathing is a PASSIVE process. As the diaphragm returns to its original position and the muscles relax, thoracic and lung volumes DEcrease and pressures INcrease, pushing air OUT of the lungs. Quiet expiration relies therefore on the ELASTICITY of the lungs and rib cage - their ability to SPRING BACK to the original dimensions. Conditions that REDUCE pulmonary elasticity, such as emphysema, can cause difficulty EXhaling. Deep breathing requires more forceful contractions of the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and involves ADDITIONAL muscles to produce LARGER changes in the thoracic volume. DEEP expiration, unlike quiet expiration, is an active process. Another factor that affects ventilation is the RESISTANCE to airflow, which exists within the lung tissues and in the airways. Lung COMPLIANCE refers to the EASE with which the lungs EXPAND. Healthy lungs normally have HIGH compliance, LOW resistance, like a THIN balloon, easy to inflate. Lung compliance is REDUCED when the lungs become “STIFF”, in conditions that cause scarring of lung tissues, or fibrosis. In this case the lung turns into a THICK balloon, harder to inflate. Diseases that NARROW the airways, such as asthma, INcrease resistance, making it harder to breathe. The airways may also DILATE or CONSTRICT in response to various factors. For example, parasympathetic stimulation and histamine typically narrow the bronchioles, INcrease resistance and DEcrease airflow; while epinephrine, a hormone released during exercises, dilates bronchioles and thereby INcreases airflow.
Views: 69814 Alila Medical Media