Videos uploaded by user “Kent Löfgren”
Word: Sidnumreringen startar på en specifik sida
Denna film hjälper dig med sidnummer i Microsoft Word. Lycka till med din inlämningsuppgift, uppsats mm. Handledning för sidnummer och avsnitt i Word 2007. Du vill skapa ett dokument där sidnumreringen startar från en specifik sida. Till exempel ett dokument med en titelsida, en andra sida för ditt abstract och en tredje sida för innehållsförteckningen. Inledningen och brödtexten startar först på den fjärde sidan och det är också här som du vill att sidnumreringen ska starta, med siffran 1. Knepet för att lyckas med detta är att dela upp dokumentet i två olika avsnitt. Varje avsnitt kan ha sin egen unika design, inklusive sidnumreringssystem. Ett problem är att avsnitt alltid är sammanlänkade. Du måste bryta denna länk. Det första steget är att placera den blinkande markören i början av den fjärde sidan. Klicka sedan på fliken Sidlayout och välj Brytningar och Avsnittsbrytningar, nästa sida. Nu har du skapat två separata avsnitt, som du kan arbeta med. Nu infogar du sidnummer i det andra avsnittet. Säkerställ att du placerar markören någonstans i det andra avsnittet, till exempel i texten på den fjärde sidan, klicka sedan på fliken Infoga sidnummer. I detta exempel placerar jag dem längst ned, i mitten. På grund av att avsnitt alltid är sammanlänkade, blir sidnumret inte korrekt just nu. Det ska vi åtgärda genom att klicka, en gång, på en speciell länk-knapp. Avsluta med att ändra formateringen för sidnumren i det andra avsnittet. Det gör du genom att klicka Infoga sidnummer och välja Formatera sidnummer. Säkerställ att det står Börja med nummer 1. Klicka sedan OK. Avlägsna sedan sidnumrerna från den första sektionen. (Markera sidnumret och radera den.) Dubbelklicka var som helst i texten för att lämna sidfoten. Detta resulterar i två avsnitt, med två olika system för sidnumreringen.
Views: 265594 Kent Löfgren
Word: Page numbers starting from a specific page
It can be tricky to start page numbering on a specific page, with number 1. For example, a document with one title page, a second page for the Abstract and a third page for the Table of Content (ToC). The introduction starts on the fourth page, and that is where you want numbers, starting at 1. The trick is to insert a section break. Each section can have its unique design, including its own page numbering system. By default, sections are linked to each other. This is something that we have to change. I will show you how to do that. The first step is to put the blinking cursor at the beginning of the fourth page. Then, click the Page layout TAB, select insert section and make sure it is the next page-option. By doing this, you have created two separate section, that you can work with. Then, to insert a page number in the second section, make sure you place the blinking cursor somewhere in section two. Then click the Insert Tab, select Insert page number. (In this example, I will put those numbers in the bottom, centre.) Now it is time to break the link. Because the two sections that we created are linked to each other, the page numbering is not correct at the moment. Click once on the link button, to break that link. While you are still in the second section of your document, re-format the page numbering for this section. You do that by clicking on the Insert TAB, selecting Format page numbers. Make sure it says Start with number 1. Then click OK. Lastly, it is time to remove the page numbers from the first section. Simply go to that section and select a page number, and delete it. Double-click anywhere in the text to leave the footer. This results in two sections, with two separate numbering systems. There are no number on the first pages, and, in the second section, there is a new page numbering system. Copyright Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 1834485 Kent Löfgren
Qualitative analysis of interview data: A step-by-step guide
The content applies to qualitative data analysis in general. Do not forget to share this Youtube link with your friends. The steps are also described in writing below (Click Show more): STEP 1, reading the transcripts 1.1. Browse through all transcripts, as a whole. 1.2. Make notes about your impressions. 1.3. Read the transcripts again, one by one. 1.4. Read very carefully, line by line. STEP 2, labeling relevant pieces 2.1. Label relevant words, phrases, sentences, or sections. 2.2. Labels can be about actions, activities, concepts, differences, opinions, processes, or whatever you think is relevant. 2.3. You might decide that something is relevant to code because: *it is repeated in several places; *the interviewee explicitly states that it is important; *you have read about something similar in reports, e.g. scientific articles; *it reminds you of a theory or a concept; *or for some other reason that you think is relevant. You can use preconceived theories and concepts, be open-minded, aim for a description of things that are superficial, or aim for a conceptualization of underlying patterns. It is all up to you. It is your study and your choice of methodology. You are the interpreter and these phenomena are highlighted because you consider them important. Just make sure that you tell your reader about your methodology, under the heading Method. Be unbiased, stay close to the data, i.e. the transcripts, and do not hesitate to code plenty of phenomena. You can have lots of codes, even hundreds. STEP 3, decide which codes are the most important, and create categories by bringing several codes together 3.1. Go through all the codes created in the previous step. Read them, with a pen in your hand. 3.2. You can create new codes by combining two or more codes. 3.3. You do not have to use all the codes that you created in the previous step. 3.4. In fact, many of these initial codes can now be dropped. 3.5. Keep the codes that you think are important and group them together in the way you want. 3.6. Create categories. (You can call them themes if you want.) 3.7. The categories do not have to be of the same type. They can be about objects, processes, differences, or whatever. 3.8. Be unbiased, creative and open-minded. 3.9. Your work now, compared to the previous steps, is on a more general, abstract level. You are conceptualizing your data. STEP 4, label categories and decide which are the most relevant and how they are connected to each other 4.1. Label the categories. Here are some examples: Adaptation (Category) Updating rulebook (sub-category) Changing schedule (sub-category) New routines (sub-category) Seeking information (Category) Talking to colleagues (sub-category) Reading journals (sub-category) Attending meetings (sub-category) Problem solving (Category) Locate and fix problems fast (sub-category) Quick alarm systems (sub-category) 4.2. Describe the connections between them. 4.3. The categories and the connections are the main result of your study. It is new knowledge about the world, from the perspective of the participants in your study. STEP 5, some options 5.1. Decide if there is a hierarchy among the categories. 5.2. Decide if one category is more important than the other. 5.3. Draw a figure to summarize your results. STEP 6, write up your results 6.1. Under the heading Results, describe the categories and how they are connected. Use a neutral voice, and do not interpret your results. 6.2. Under the heading Discussion, write out your interpretations and discuss your results. Interpret the results in light of, for example: *results from similar, previous studies published in relevant scientific journals; *theories or concepts from your field; *other relevant aspects. STEP 7 Ending remark Nb: it is also OK not to divide the data into segments. Narrative analysis of interview transcripts, for example, does not rely on the fragmentation of the interview data. (Narrative analysis is not discussed in this tutorial.) Further, I have assumed that your task is to make sense of a lot of unstructured data, i.e. that you have qualitative data in the form of interview transcripts. However, remember that most of the things I have said in this tutorial are basic, and also apply to qualitative analysis in general. You can use the steps described in this tutorial to analyze: *notes from participatory observations; *documents; *web pages; *or other types of qualitative data. STEP 8 Suggested reading Alan Bryman's book: 'Social Research Methods' published by Oxford University Press. Steinar Kvale's and Svend Brinkmann's book 'InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing' published by SAGE. Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 726595 Kent Löfgren
What is ontology? Introduction to the word and the concept
In a philosophical context 0:28 Why ontology is important 1:08 Ontological materialism 1:34 Ontological idealism 1:59 In a non-philosophical context 2:24 Information systems 2:40 Social ontology 3:25 The word ontology comes from two Greek words: "Onto", which means existence, or being real, and "Logia", which means science, or study. The word is used both in a philosophical and non-philosophical context. ONTOLOGY IN A PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT In philosophy, ontology is the study of what exists, in general. Examples of philosophical, ontological questions are: What are the fundamental parts of the world? How they are related to each other? Are physical parts more real than immaterial concepts? For example, are physical objects such as shoes more real than the concept of walking? In terms of what exists, what is the relationship between shoes and walking? Why is ontology important in philosophy? Philosophers use the concept of ontology to discuss challenging questions to build theories and models, and to better understand the ontological status of the world. Over time, two major branches of philosophical ontology has developed, namely: Ontological materialism, and ontological idealism. Ontological materialism From a philosophical perspective, ontological materialism is the belief that material things, such as particles, chemical processes, and energy, are more real, for example, than the human mind. The belief is that reality exists regardless of human observers. Ontological idealism Idealism is the belief that immaterial phenomenon, such as the human mind and consciousness, are more real, for example, than material things. The belief is that reality is constructed in the mind of the observer. ONTOLOGY IN A NON-PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT Outside philosophy, ontology is used in a different, more narrow meaning. Here, an ontology is the description of what exist specifically within a determined field. For example, every part that exists in a specific information system. This includes the relationship and hierarchy between these parts. Unlike the philosophers, these researchers are not primarily interested in discussing if these things are the true essence, core of the system. Nor are they discussing if the parts within the system are more real compared to the processes that take place within the system. Rather, they are focused on naming parts and processes and grouping similar ones together into categories. Outside philosophy, the word ontology is also use, for example, in social ontology. Here, the idea is to describe society and its different parts and processes. The purpose of this is to understand and describe the underlying structures that affect individuals and groups. Suggested reading You can read more about ontology in some of the many articles available online, for example: http://www.streetarticles.com/science/what-is-ontology Copyright Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 285510 Kent Löfgren
Normality test using SPSS: How to check whether data are normally distributed
If data need to be approximately normally distributed, this tutorial shows how to use SPSS to verify this. On a side note: my new project: http://howtowritecitations.com. Statistical analyses often have dependent variables and independent variables and many parametric statistical methods require that the dependent variable is approximately normally distributed for each category of the independent variable. Let us assume that we have a dependent variable, exam scores, and an independent variable, gender. In short, we must investigate the following numerical and visual outputs (and the tutorial shows how to do just that): -The Skewness & kurtosis z-values, which should be somewhere in the span -1.96 to +1.96; -The Shapiro-Wilk p-value, which should be above 0.05; -The Histograms, Normal Q-Q plots and Box plots, which should visually indicate that our data are approximately normally distributed. Remember that your data do not have to be perfectly normally distributed. The main thing is that they are approximately normally distributed, and that you check each category of the independent variable. (In our example, both male and female data.) Step 1. In the menu of SPSS, click on Analyze, select Descriptive Statistics and Explore. Step 2. Set exam scores as the dependent variable, and gender as the independent variable. Step 3. Click on Plots, select "Histogram" (you do not need "Stem-and-leaf") and select "Normality plots with tests" and click on Continue, then OK. Step 4. Start with skewness and kurtosis. The skewness and kurtosis measures should be as close to zero as possible, in SPSS. In reality, however, data are often skewed and kurtotic. A small departure from zero is therefore no problem, as long as the measures are not too large compare to their standard errors. As a consequence, you must divide the measure by its standard error, and you need to do this by hand, using a calculator. This will give you the z-value, which, as I said, should be somewhere within -1.96 to +1.96. Let us start with the males in our example. To calculate the skewness z-value, divide the skewness measure by its standard error. All z-values in the tutorial video are within ±1.96. We can conclude that the exam score data are a little skewed and kurtotic, for both males and females, but they do not differ significantly from normality. Step 5. Check the Shapiro-Wilk test statistic. The null hypothesis for this test of normality is that the data are normally distributed. The null hypothesis is rejected if the p-value is below 0.05. In SPSS output, the p-value is labeled "Sig". In our example, the p-values for males and females are above 0.05, so we keep the null hypothesis. The Shapiro-Wilk test thus indicates that our example data are approximately normally distributed. Step 6. Next, let us look at the graphical figures, for both male and female data. Inspect the histograms visually. They should have the approximate shape of a normal curve. Then, look at the normal Q-Q plot. The dots should be approximately distributed along the line. This indicates that the data are approximately normally distributed. Skip the Detrended Q-Q plots. You do not need them. Finally, look at the box plots. They should be approximately symmetrical. The video contains references to books and articles. About writing out the results: I would put it under the sub-heading "Sample characteristics", and the video contains examples of how I would write. In this tutorial, I show you how to check if a dependent variable is approximately normally distributed for each category of an independent variable. I am assuming that you, eventually, want to use a certain parametric statistical methods to explore and investigate your data. If it turns out that your dependent variable is not approximately normally distributed for each category of the independent variable, it is no problem. In such case, you will have to use non-parametric methods, because they make no assumptions about the distributions. Good luck with your research. Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden Here are the references that I discuss in the video (thanks Abdul Syafiq Bahrin for typing them our for me): Cramer, D. (1998). Fundamental statistics for social research. London: Routledge. Cramer, D., & Howitt, D. (2004). The SAGE dictionary of statistics. London: SAGE. Doane, D. P., & Seward, L.E. (2011). Measuring Skewness. Journal of Statistics Education, 19(2), 1-18. Razali, N. M., & Wah, Y. B. (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Liliefors and Anderson-Darling test. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2(1), 21-33. Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples). Biometrika, 52(3/4), 591-611.
Views: 438705 Kent Löfgren
How to enter survey data into Excel from a pen-and-paper questionnaire
I show my technique of entering raw data into Microsoft Excel that has been collected via a pen-and-paper survey. This includes both questions with fixed responses and open-ended questions. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 106865 Kent Löfgren
What is epistemology? Introduction to the word and the concept
In a philosophical context 0:13 What is knowledge? 0:31 To justify a belief 1:09 Empiricism 1:35 Rationalism 2:03 In a non-philosophical context 2:38 Formal epistemology 3:30 Genetic epistemology 4:02 Social epistemology 4:43 The word itself comes from two Greek words: "Episteme" = knowledge, understanding, and "Logia" = science, study. EPISTEMOLOGY IN A PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT In philosophy, epistemology is the study of knowledge, in general. Examples of epistemological questions are: What does knowledge mean? How does a person get to know something? What is the basis for true knowledge? What is knowledge? Knowledge is justified, true belief. It means that: • the person must be able to justify the claim • the claim itself must be true, and • the person must believe in it An example: Let us assume that a person says 'I know that people have walked on the moon'. For this to be true knowledge: • It must be possible to justify that claim • It must also be a fact, i.e. people have indeed been to the moon • And, finally, the person must also actually believe that people have walked on the moon To justify a belief Beliefs (claims) must be justified. This is done by using evidence. • This evidence must be of good quality • The evidence should also be logical and reasonable Over time, two major branches of philosophical epistemology have developed Empiricism and Rationalism Empiricism True knowledge is primarily founded on input from our senses It is important to refer to experience and observations when beliefs and claims are justified and proven Ideas or traditions are not the primary, most important source for knowledge Rationalism Rationalism emphasizes reason, rather than experience and observations, as the primary basis for justifying beliefs and claims. Thus, the rational (hence rationalism) and logical human mind is the source for new knowledge, not the material world around us. Research results are verified primarily by reasoning. EPISTEMOLOGY IN A NON-PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT The concept of epistemology is also used outside philosophy. This is because the task of producing new knowledge is a major part of the everyday work of academics. Thus, epistemology has a significant impact on the scientific endeavors of most scholars, given its importance for discussing the limits and possibilities of creating and reporting new knowledge. Further, scholars in academic departments and disciplines such as curriculum and instruction, educational science, and pedagogy have, more or less, an inherent interest in issues related to knowledge. This is because they often discuss, conduct research about, and report research results about what knowledge is and how it is transferred between individuals and groups. Formal epistemology Formal epistemology is the study of questions such as: what is knowledge, how may a belief be justified, how do we know that something is true? However, the theories, concepts, and arguments used here are used in a non-philosophical context. For example in mathematical logic, statistics, linguistics, computing and other academic fields. Genetic epistemology Genetic epistemology Genetic epistemology is used to study the cognitive development among children and how children understand, learn, and acquire new knowledge. Sensory-motor schemes (impressions and experiences) affects symbolic systems (thoughts and knowledge). Social epistemology Social epistemology is about the social context for creating new knowledge. Social epistemology is studied in academic fields such as sociology, psychology and education. In focus are human and social aspects of knowledge production. For example, historical and cultural factors, access to and use of learning tools, and so on. Suggested reading You can read more about epistemology in some of the many articles that are available on line, for example: http://www.streetarticles.com/science/what-is-epistemology Copyright Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 243366 Kent Löfgren
How to create a pen-and-paper survey in Word
This video shows how I make a printable questionnaire using Microsoft word. First, I start by opening a new, blank document inside Word, to write the question and the responses. Secondly, I put the blinking marker in front of the answer and in the menu I select the tab Insert, click on the Symbol button, and select More Symbols. Here, I select the tab Symbols, click on the triangle, and select Wingdings. I scroll down and select either the circle or the square, and click the Insert button. Thirdly, I copy and paste this symbol for each response. For a Likert scale, I use a table with a column for each step in the scale. After writing the question, I put the blinking marker where I want to put the scale. I select the tab Insert, click on the Table button, and I most often create a 5 column table. Then I copy and paste symbols, write down the scale digits, and describe the options. By clicking and dragging the columns, I make sure that the space between each option is equal. I also remove the frames around the cells, to make the table invisible. Click, drag, and select all cells, select the Home tab, click on the small triangle in the middle, and select the option No borders. For open questions, I just create one large table cell, where my participants can write whatever they want. Please note that I use circles for questions where my participants should only mark one answer. For questions where they can select multiple answers, I use squares. In the literature, the circles are also called radio buttons and the squares are called checkboxes. Do not hesitate to click that Like button and/or Subscribe, if my videos helped you forward. Good luck with your study. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 7768 Kent Löfgren
Ordinal data: Krippendorff alpha inter-rater reliability test
How to use a statistical test (Krippendorff alpha) to check the reliability of a variable with ordinal data, using a Windows PC and SPSS. Six observers have rated 30 student. The question was “How would you rate this individual student?” 1 = Excellent 2 = Above Average 3 = Average 4 = Below Average Here, I have six judges and no missing data. However, this statistical test can be used with any number of judges and with or without missing data. In SPSS, click File, Open, Syntax, and open the macro “kalpha.sps”. If you do not have this special file, please see my previous video “Nominal dichotomous yes/no data: Krippendorff alpha inter-rater reliability” where I show you how to find and download it. Execute this macro. Open your data file. Run the statistical test, by clicking File, New, Syntax and type: kalpha judges = teacher1 teacher2 teacher3 teacher4 teacher5 teacher6/level = 2/detail = 0/boot = 10000 Then: Run, All The Krippendorff's Alpha Reliability Estimate here is 0.6159. An alpha below 0.67 indicates a really low inter-rater reliability. Ideally, it should be over 0.8. Below 0.8 but above 0.67 indicates low reliability. Source: Krippendorff’s own book Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. (Published by SAGE.) The table shows that there is an estimated 70.01 percent chance that the alpha would be below 0.67 if the whole population would be tested. A Krippendorff alpha of just 0.6159 is perhaps too low to be used in a report, but I still include an example here, just to show how these types of results are written out. Method The Krippendorff’s alpha test was used (Hayes & Krippendorff, 2007) to estimate the inter-coder reliability, and these alpha (α) values are reported in the results below. Results The results show that the inter-coder reliability was low (α = 0.6159), i.e. that the six observers did not agree. Discussion (Here, discuss possible reasons why the observers did not agree.) References Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures 1(1), 77-89. Let us do it again, with another set of example data. Here we have four observers who are rating 12 individuals. There are missing data, but that is no problem for the Krippendorff alpha test. It is one great advantage, compared to other statistical tests. File, New, Syntax. kalpha judges = obsa obsb obsc obsd/level = 2/detail = 0/boot = 10000 The Krippendorff's Alpha Reliability Estimate here is 0.8095. There is a 6.46 percent chance that the alpha would be below 0.67 if the whole population would be tested. This is an example of how it can be reported in text: Method The Krippendorff’s alpha test was used (Hayes & Krippendorff, 2007) to estimate the inter-coder reliability, and these alpha (α) values are reported in the results below. Results The results show a relatively high inter-coder reliability (α = 0.8095), i.e. that the four observers were in agreement with each other. Discussion (Discuss plausible reasons why the observers agreed as well as possible consequences.) References Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures 1(1), 77-89.
Views: 6275 Kent Löfgren
Test for equality of variances: Parametric and nonparametric Levene's test in SPSS
Equality of variances is an assumption for statistical methods such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)—a parametric method—and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis—a non-parametric method. We must be able to test for equality of variances in both normally distributed data and non-normally distributed data. There are two separate tests for equality of variances: 1) If you have normally distributed data, you should perform the parametric Levene's test. 2) If you have non-normally distributed data, you should perform the non-parametric Levene's test. In this video tutorial, I show you how to perform both, using SPSS, and I also show the necessary references, and how to write out your results. PARAMETRIC LEVENE'S TEST -Analyze, Compare Means, One Way ANOVA. -Put your data variable in the Dependent List. -Put your groups in the Factor Field. -Click on Options and check, Homogeneity of Variance Test, and then click Continue and OK. -Scrutinize the Test of Homogeneity of Variances. The null hypothesis for the parametric Levene's test is that there is an equality of variance. If the p-value is below 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and assume that we do not have equality of variance. If it is above 0.05, we keep the null hypothesis. NONPARAMETRIC LEVENE'S TEST In SPSS, it is not yet possible to execute Levene's test for non-normally distributed data in one step. We need to prepare the data by taking some initial steps: Step 1) Create the ranked data and put them into a new variable. This is how I do it with my example data: -In the SPSS menu, select Transform, and then Rank Cases. -Put your data into the field Variable (in this example, it is "Score") and then click OK. SPSS will automatically create and label a new variable, "RScore," where the letter "R" stands for "ranked." In this new variable, each student has been given an individual rank based on their exam scores. Students with low exam scores are given lower rankings than students who performed better. Step 2) Based on these individual rankings, determine the mean ranks for each group. So, yet another variable has to be created in SPSS. This is how I do it: -In the menu, select Data, then Aggregate. -Put the variable previously created, "RScore," into the field Summaries of Variable. -Click on Function and select Mean. This will collect the numbers in the variable "RScore" and aggregate them in the form of mean values. -Put your groups in the field Break Variable, in our example "Town," and then click OK. SPSS will automatically create and label a new variable, this time entitled "RScore_mean_1". In this new variable, each student has been given a value based on their group. All members of the same group, or "Town" in my example, will have the same value. It is the group's mean rank. Step 3) Create a third variable, containing a measure of each individual's deviation from his or her group's mean rank. -Transform, Compute Variable. -Then, under Target Variable, provide a label for this third, new variable. -In the field Numeric Expression, enter the formula. -Before we click OK and execute this computation, we must instruct SPSS that we only want positive values. In the field Function group, click once on All. Then select the entire expression and double-click on Abs, in the field Functions and Special Variables. You have now instructed SPSS to transform all results to absolute values. -Click OK. The third variable is created and it contains individual measures of spread, i.e. how far each individual is to his or her group's mean. Next, you will perform an ANOVA on these individual differences. The null hypothesis is that there is an equality of variance. If the p-value is above 0.05, we keep the null hypothesis and assume equality of variance. If the p-value is below 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and assume that the differences in variance or spread between the groups are statistically significantly. Suggested reading Nordstokke, D. W., & Zumbo, B. D. (2010). A new nonparametric Levene test for equal variances. Psicológica, 31(2), 401-430. Nordstokke, D. W., Zumbo, B. D., Cairns, S.L., & Saklofske, D.H. (2011). The operating characteristics of the nonparametric Levene test for equal variances with assessment and evaluation data. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 1(5). (Page numbers not available.) Martin, W. E., & Bridgmon, K. D. (2012). Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods: From Hypothesis to Results. Somerset, NJ: Wiley. In the video tutorial, I show examples of how to write out the results, for both the parametric Levene's test and the nonparametric Levene's test. Good luck with testing your data in SPSS for equality of variances, either through a parametric or a non-parametric Levene's test. Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 84841 Kent Löfgren
Excel: Survey data, tables and exporting data to SPSS
Instead, watch this new, and updated video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4J6xYoKwAo How to enter survey data and creating cross-tables in Excel. You have collected questionnaire data and you want to enter the data and create cross-tables in Excel. Eventually you also want to export the raw data into SPSS for further analysis. First you must enter the name of the variables in the first row, then enter the raw data in the following rows. Second, to create cross-tables, select your data (including the first row with the variable names), click on the Insert-tab, click Insert Pivot table, and insert the empty table into the worksheet. From the right side, drag one variable to the rows and another to the columns. Also, drag the last one to the main data field. By default, Excel might work with sums, and that ruins the table. We need to change that, by right-clicking in the main data field and dragging down to Summarise data by and select Count (the table will now show frequencies). To export the raw data to SPSS: Save as an ordinary Excel file. Close the file (or quit excel) and start SPSS. In SPSS, click File, drag down to Open and select Data. Make sure you tell SPSS that you want to open an excel file, else the file will now show up. Once you located the file, open it. Copyright Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 60480 Kent Löfgren
Excel: Enkätdata, tabeller och att exportera till SPSS
Du har samlat in data med hjälp av en enkät med ett antal frågor. Nu vill du mata in dessa enkätdata och skapa korstabeller i Excel. Senare vill du även exportera dina rådata till SPSS för att där kunna genomföra ytterligare analyser. För att mata in rådata i Excel och för att skapa korstabeller i Excel: Skriv namnen på variablerna på den första raden och mata in data i de följande raderna. Markera alla data, klicka på Infoga, välj Pivottabell och infoga den tomma tabellen var som helst i ditt excelark. Från den högra marginalen, drag en variabeln till raderna och drag en annan variabel till kolumnerna. Drag även den andra variabeln till mitten av tabellen. Det är möjligt att Excel är inställt på att arbeta med summor, vilket förstör tabellen. Vi ändrar detta genom att högerklicka i tabellen, dra ned till Summera data efter och välja Antal. Nu visar tabellen frekvenser och det är det vi vill. För att exportera rådata från Excel till SPSS: Spara data som en vanlig excelfil. Stäng filen (eller stäng programmet) och starta SPSS. I SPSS, välj öppna data och markera att du vill öppna en excelfil, annars syns inte filen. När du har hittat filen, öppna den.
Views: 13546 Kent Löfgren
Nominal dichotomous yes/no data: Krippendorff alpha inter-rater reliability
How to use a statistical test (Krippendorff alpha) to check the reliability of a variable with nominal/dichotomous data. (Windows PC & SPSS.) Reference: Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures 1(1), 77-89. Step 1. Search for and download the Kalpha macro. I use the keywords: download, macro, kalpha, spss to find it on the internet. Sometimes you will find the file, which is named “kalpha.sps”. And sometimes you will find a compressed, zipped file called “kalpha.zip”. Either way, just download this to your own computer. Step 2. If it is the uncompressed file “kalpha.sps”, you just leave it as it is. If it is the zip file, which is a compressed folder, you must extract it. Right-click on it, and extract. Remember where you save it because you need it later. Step 3. Start SPSS and open a blank, empty page. Step 4. File, Open, Syntax Step 5. Search your computer, select and open the file “kalpha.sps”. The macro. As you can see, it is just a script. Do not change anything. Just leave it. Step 6. Execute this macro by Run, All. The window that pops up is normal. Just a confirmation that all is OK. You can close it and the script, if you want. Step 7. Open your data. Make sure that you data is correct. Numeric type and nominal level of measure. Step 8. It is time to run the statistical test. Normally, you select a test from a menu. But, since this test is not include inside SPSS, we need to execute it ourselves. File, New, Syntax and type: kalpha judges = obs1 obs2 obs3 obs4 obs5/level = 1/detail = 0/boot = 10000 I will explain what it means, later. Then: Run, All This is how I would write my report: Method The Krippendorff’s alpha test was used (Hayes & Krippendorff, 2007) to estimate the inter-coder reliability, and these alpha (α) values are reported in the results below. Results The results show that the inter-coder reliability was relatively high (α = 0. 7831), i.e. that the five coders did agree. Discussion (Here, you interpret and discuss plausible reasons why you think that the coders did (or did not) agree. It is beyond the scope of this example, where I only focus on the statistical test.) References Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures 1(1), 77-89.
Views: 9690 Kent Löfgren
Word count and character count in Microsoft Word
Look/click bottom left or select Review Tab then click Word Count button. A third, less used, way is to put the blinking marker anywhere in your document, select the Insert Tab, click on Quick parts, select Field, then select NumWords. When you click OK, a so called field is inserted, showing the number of words in the document. Now, regardin the the Status bar in the bottom: If you do not see the square with numbers, you must add it manually. Just right-click anywhere on the status bar and highlight Word Count, and the square will appear. You can also add or remove other information, such as the number of pages, if you want. You can click on the word number square, to open the information window for the facts about your document, including word and character counts. Further, let us assume that you want to know the number of words in a small area of your document. To count the number of words in such a section, just click and drag with your left mouse button to select it, and have look at the status bar. In our example, X/Y indicated that the selected text has X word and the total number of words in the document is Y. 33 436 Finally, about the Quick Part NumWords field that we inserted to show the number of words. please note that this numerical figure is not automatically updated. You need to right-click and update this field manually if you add more words to your document. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 29052 Kent Löfgren
How to create figures in Excel: Survey/questionnaire results/data | APA Style graphs
Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMG1KRP9BP0 Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4J6xYoKwAo Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 59615 Kent Löfgren
Random sample text generator lorem ipsum in Word
At the start of a new line, type =rand() and press ENTER. If you want Latin words, use =lorem() instead. Let us assume that you need some placeholder text, also known as filler/fake text. This video shows how to create and add such text in Microsoft's Word. The steps are: a) First, put the blinking marker at the beginning of a new line. b) Secodnly, type the equals sign, followed by rand and then parentheses. Please note that there are no spaces. c) Thirdly, press ENTER on your keyboard, and the random text is automatically created. By default, this will insert 3 paragraphs with 3 sentences in each. Just copy and paste this, or repeat the process, if you need more random text. Further, let’s say you, right from the start, want more text. Then, within the parenthesis, write the desired number of paragraphs, a comma, and the number of sentences in each paragraph. For example: =rand(10,5) Which will give you ten paragraphs with 5 sentences in each. In case you are wodnering, rand is an abbreviation for random, but you knew that :-) Finally, if you want Latin words, and not English, use lorem instead of rand: =lorem() Thanks for watching. Now you know how to create random sample text in Word. It might come handy when you are testing different layouts, in document, web sites or other formats, and need sample placeholder texts. The idea is to see what the design looks like or how much space is required. It could also be that you need a sample text document to practise different settings or proceedings when you are learning a new function in a computer programme.
Views: 9844 Kent Löfgren
Disruptive technology example: Voice over Internet Protocol, VoIP, business phone service
VoIP=voice over internet. Disruptive technology/innovation=new, ground-breaking product/service on a large scale. Examples of disruptive innovations are the personal computer, the laptop, mobile phones, emails, online courses and massive open online courses, MOOC. They all interfered with a product/service so that something new became accessible, through a disruptive process. Sometimes you will experience disruptive technologies or innovations, and VoIP has been such an experience for me and for many others. VoIP was really introduced during the 1990s and available to the masses in the first decade of the 21th century, at least where I live in Sweden. In 2014, when my employer decided to change the business phone solution, and it was time to toss out my old work phone, I decided to capture the moment, as a memento of an era gone by. The old way of communicating via telephone was known as the public switched telephone network, PSTN, also called plain old telephone service, POTS. The calls were switched back and forth between electrical circuits, and, in a sense, there was always a nonstop, physical electronic connection between the caller and the person that answered the telephone call. You can picture it as an uninterrupted copper wire, with signals going back and forth in a continuous flow. The difference is that internet telephony, from a technical point of view, is not a continuous electronic connection and signals are not sent and received in a continuous flow. Rather they, our voices, are cut into pieces of digital data and are sent as packets over the internet. A business firm, a university, or any other organisation can run its telephone system over their standard internet connection, even a simple broadband connection. In our daily lives, we use internet broadband for e-mail and for web surfing. VoIP is just another service running over the internet broadband. There are many benefits of VoIP. There are usually no costs for calls between two VoIP phones, which makes long distance calls less of a budget burden. It is easy to move a VoIP phone to another room or a new geographical location. Simply unplug and move it, as long as you have access to the internet. With the old technology, you had to pay extra for moving or adding a phone, if it was at all possible to do it. VoIP calls can also be made in different ways, which makes it even more flexible. You can keep and use your old, traditional phone, together with adapters to hook into the internet and the VoIP systems. Or you can use special VoIP-phones that are made for using the VoIP systems. You can use software on an ordinary computer, to make your calls via your PC or Mac. You can even have a VoIP app on you mobile phone. You are not limited by the number of copper wires that run into your business office. You just need one internet connection and you are only limited by its capacity, i.e. the bandwidth. You do not need to pay for and install a new copper wire each time you add a phone to your office, as long as your internet connection can handle the calls. Another benefit is the fact that VoIP is fully compatible with how the internet is set up and operates, and this is great for business phone systems. VoIP works with existing applications such as e-mail, web surfing and customer databases. Your VoIP server can take messages, and you can also send instant messages via your VoIP server. This is the big benefit of VoIP: telephones and computers used to be more or less separated, but they now live in the same world, and it results in tons of benefits for firms, authorities, organisations and individuals. In my example, the hardware is my computer and my headphones, and the software is Microsofts Lync, which is a fairly common programme for business phone solutions. It is not the only way of using IP telephony, but this type of softphone is the business solution that my employer has chosen at the moment. A softphone is software that you install on your PC or Mac to enable your computer to act as a telephone. Suggested reading Clayton Christensen’s book and his web site. Dennis Viehland articles on disruptive innovations in the educational field. Thank you very much for watching this video. Copyright: Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden. Photos by the following flickr.com members have been used with permission under CC BY-SA: zigazou76 (00:50), olpc (00:56), waagsociety (00:57), mwichary (01:06), kruemi (01:09), dvanzuijlekom (01:13), fsse-info (02:47), glenbledsoe (03:14), and kim_carpenter_nj (03:40).
Views: 4506 Kent Löfgren
Technology-enhanced learning in higher education: Article summary
This is a summary of Kirkwood's and Price's (2013) literature review article "Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: what is ‘enhanced’ and how do we know?", published in the journal Learning, media and technology, volume 39, issue 1, pages 6 through 36. i put a written summary here: http://hubpages.com/education/Technology-enhanced-learning-Kirkwood-Price-2013 Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 2892 Kent Löfgren
Hide/show the Ruler, change to inches/centimeters, in Word
How to get rid of and view the Ruler and how to change the Ruler to inches or centimeters in Microsoft Word. © Kent Löfgren
Views: 15154 Kent Löfgren
How to make a fried egg sandwich with Andalucian olive oil
There are many ilke it, but this is how I do it when I make myself a simple fried egg sandwich. Basic, yet delicious, with Andalucian olive oil, cheese and pepper together with the company of a good friend in my kitchen, Mr. Zhimba. I just wish he would sit on a chair :-) Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 566 Kent Löfgren
Are japanese books backwards? | Read right to left!
Yes, japanese books are written "backwards", at least from my perspective :-) For example, have a look at the japanese book in this video See the page numbers... it is backwards. They start at what I would call the end of the book, and then read from the rear. I.e. prologue, i.e. the introductory section, is at what I would regard as the rear. How do you read this, you might wonder. On each new page, you start reading in the upper right corner. Then you read vertically. Once one verical line is read, you move from right to left to the next vertical line. A period is indicated with a small circle. The original price for the book in my video was about 438 Yen, which is less than 5 US dollars. This particular book was purchased second hand, for just about 1 dollar. The author's name is NAGAIN Akira (永井明) and he worked as a doctor in Japan. He was born 1947 and he died in 2004, and he wrote quite a lot of things. Thanks for watching! Please click the LIKE button and SUBSCRIBE, if you enjoyed the video. SOCIAL Twitter: https://twitter.com/Kent_Lofgren Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/kent.loffy.lofgren
Views: 1460 Kent Löfgren
Record PowerPoint/Prezi presentation on computer screen for free
Tutorial on how to use Screencast-o-matic's free web service to record a film with your presentation, e.g. PowerPoint or Prezi.
Views: 1142 Kent Löfgren
How to find free music for youtube videos and commercial use
In this tutorial video I show how I find music that is free and can be used for anything, even commercially, as long as I credit the original artist. The trick is to search for, download and use music that is under a so called Creative Commons Attribution licence, and in this video I provide a step-by-step description of how i do just that. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 2875 Kent Löfgren
Tutorial for how to write citations . c o m
How to write citations: A tutorial for the Free Citation Generator http://howtowritecitations.com for APA MLA Chicago Turabian. The website is useful for anyone who wants to, for example, write a paper and need to provide the readers with in-text references and a bibliography. The content of the tutorial can be summarized in these steps: Initially, you need to go to 'howtowritecitations.com'. Select the type of source you want to cite, for example a scientific journal article. Fill out the form with the necessary bibliographic data and click "Create Citation". By default, it shows the APA Style. However, you may swtich to MLA Style or Chicago/Turabian Notes Style. No fee or membership required. The entire website free for all to use. The final step is to highlight the suggested citations it with your mouse, copy it, and use the paste option "Paste Special" to put it into your paper. Use 'Paste Special' to paste the citation into your paper. This will keep the text only, and remove the website formatting. You need to do the formatting yourself. Using this turorial video in YouTube Playlists, as well as submitting Video Responses, is encouraged and appreciated. Remember to follow 'howtowritecitations.com' on Twitter and Facebook, and to subscribe to the Youtube channel. Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/How-to-write-citations/247939465235988 Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/how_to_wri_cit On a side note, take some time to check out other relevant channels and websites: APAHelpCentre: http://www.youtube.com/user/APAHelpCenter MLA: http://www.mla.org/ Chicago: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yG63ApHlhP4 Also watch this informative video on using online generators: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QuDfT1nuUFs That's it. Thanks for watching. Copyright Text and video (including audio) © Kent Löfgren, Sweden
Views: 28416 Kent Löfgren
How to brush your cat: Pet fur for bird nests
Inspired by YouTube videos, I set out to brush our family's cat, Zhimba. Take part in the fun process, and as a bonus learn more about pet fur for bird nests. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 489 Kent Löfgren
How to make/create a PowerPoint presentation
Tutorial about the necessary steps to create your own PowerPoint presentation.
Views: 68307 Kent Löfgren
Potato chip sandwich with tuna, mayo, relish & lettuce
My peckish-demolishing, yummy and quick-to-make super snack. Highly recommended!
Views: 706 Kent Löfgren
Free sound effects download: For youtube videos & music projects
I did not make this video to promote or sell anything. Rather, it is just a film that tells the viewers what I do, when I look for certain items (sound effects). I primarely use the site "freesound.org" and the sound effect libraries inside YouTube and audio editors (for example Adobe Audition). Besides these free files, there are also sound effects to be bought via web sites that sell such files. However, I only use these sites when I can not find what I want via my other places. Copyright: Text and video © Kent Löfgren, Sweden.
Views: 4615 Kent Löfgren
Kent Lofgren Live: Working at home, late evening, 30 Aug. 2015
This is just a simple live (stream) broadcast from my desk, at home, while I am silently working with some documents in the late evening. Nothing spectacular, I am afraid, just a streaming experience. The low frame-rate (staccato movement) is due to the fact that the live stream was broadcasted with a frame-rate of only 5 frames per second, which is standard, to save bandwidth. I did this mainly to test YouTube's live broadcast function, and afterwards it felt as if the technique worked fairly well. I did not have any technical issues at least. Background music: random songs by Kevin Macleod (incompetech.com).
Views: 767 Kent Löfgren
Trailer for potential subscribers | Welcome to the channel
I made this promotional trailer for web surfers who are contemplating subscribing to my YouTube channel. http://www.facebook.com/kent.loffy.lofgren http://howtowritecitations.com
Views: 9932 Kent Löfgren
A milestone for this YouTube channel: 5000 subscribers
Thank you very much guys!
Views: 228 Kent Löfgren
Happy New 2017 everyone! Thanks for 6000 subscribers!
Good luck and have fun 2017 everyone! Also, I want to thank you guys for 6.000 subscribers, which is awesome! Thank you so much. it insipres me to make and upload more stuff.
Views: 113 Kent Löfgren
Screencast-o-matic Pro ($15 USD/year): Create/share password-protected video
How to record HD screen/webcam and host/publish for $15 dollars per year. Important: I do not get paid for endorsing this product. Instead, I just like it and wanted to show how I use it myself. First, you need a headset with a microphone. Then, you need to go to http://www.screencast-o-matic.com to buy a "Pro account". However, in order to get it, you need to create an ordinary account first, then upgrade it to the Pro level. It is cheap and a requirement for this to work. When your Pro account is ready and you are logged into it, press the button "Start Recording". This will open a recording frame on your screen. Set the frame size to 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels high. Get the things that you want to show and discuss ready. In other words, open the powerpoint or images that you want to discuss and show your viewers. Might need to adjust the size of your files so that they all fit within the recording frame. In the bottom left, click on the Microphone button, and select the headset microphone. Test the microphone by talking into it and make sure that the volume meter is moving. Click on the red button to start recording. During your recording, show your texts, files, and images and talk into the headset microphone. Talk slowly and use a clear voice. You can pause the recording at any time, if you want to switch between different texts, files, or images, and you continue by clicking on the record button. Keep it short. 5-10 minutes is often enough. When you are finished, click on the button "Done". You will be asked "What do you want to do with this recording?" and you select the option: "Upload to Screencast-o-matic". Give your new video a title. Do not worry, you can change this later if you want. Do not forget to enter a password. Under the heading "Options", unselect the option "Users can leave comments", because we do not need that. You can change this later, if you want. Next, click "Upload to SOM", which is the abbreviation for Screencast-o-matic. As soon as your new video is uploaded, you will be given a link. Copy this link and paste it into an e-mail that you send to yourself. Logout from screencast-o-matic.com. Check your e-mail, and click on the video link, just to make sure that it is password-protected and that the video looks and sounds OK. Finally, give the video link and the password to the intented viewer. Let me end with two things: Firstly, there is a risk that you will think that the content and the quality of your video is not good enough. My advice is that you should not give that a second thought. Try not to be too critical, and accept the fact that your video _is_ good enough. I am 100 percent sure that your viewers will find its quality and content more than acceptable. Secondly, do not try to be too creative, producing videos that are too complicated or too long. If you feel that you must tell the viewers 50 different things, do not do it. Avoid information overload and aim for simplicity and clarity. At the end of your video, tell your viewers who to contact or where to go for additional information. If you _still_ think that you _must_ cover 50 different things, my advice is that you should make a series of videos. Divide the 50 things into 5 categories and create one 5 minute video for each category. These types of videos are superior because they can be watched on a PC, a Mac, or a smartphone anytime, any day, but no-one likes to watch videos that are too long. Therefore, always let your password-protected be short and informative. I wish you all good luck.
Views: 25884 Kent Löfgren